Educational courses

CLASSROOM STRATEGY OF TEACHERS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS

INTRODUCTION TO CHAPTER ONE 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Today’s globe is undergoing tremendous growth, and every country is attempting to satisfy the requirements required to achieve its development via science and technology. Science and technology education is therefore essential to generate technologists, technicians, scientists, craftsmen, and skilled artisans who are required to alter the economy, resulting in the quick growth and development required for countries to deal with today’s difficulties (Ezeudu & Ezinwanne, 2013). Education is a critical human activity.

 

It enables fashion and model persons in any culture to perform effectively in their surroundings. According to Boit et al. (2012), the goal of education is to provide citizens with the tools they need to transform their society and reduce inequality. Secondary education, in particular, is an important area for national and individual growth. It is critical in developing a country’s human resource base beyond elementary education (Achoka et. al, 2007). According to UNESCO (2005), one of the markers of educational quality is learners’ cognitive performance. Student’s academic progress is measured by how well they score on standardized and formative examinations administered by their instructors.

 

According to Lewin et al. (2011), the academic success of students at the secondary level is not only a predictor of school efficiency but also a key factor of the well-being of adolescents in particular and the country in general. Science and mathematics are two of the key disciplines of the Philippine education system at the elementary and secondary levels. Modern Science and Mathematics education has been severely mandated across the nation in order to equip the younger generation to cope with the fast changes brought about by technological innovation and development (Corpuz et. al, 2006).

 

The National Achievement Test (NAT) is a Philippine-made standardized test administered by the Department of Education (DepEd) at the end of the school year to determine students’ achievement levels, strengths, and weaknesses in five key curricular areas (Science, Math, English, Filipino, and Araling Panlipunan). According to the NAT 2012 results, fourth-year students received an MPS of 46.37 for Mathematics, indicating a lower performance as compared to the previous year (47.82% in 2006 and 50.70% in 2005). Students’ performance in Science, on the other hand, has improved little. In 2005, the average rating was 39.49%; by 2012, it had risen to 40.53%.

 

Despite the government’s efforts to improve Filipino students’ performance in five important areas, most notably Science and Mathematics, the NAT results indicated that the student’s performance did not meet the seventy-five percent (75%) required performance rating on the stated test. Students’ underachievement in Science and Mathematics has become a nationwide problem throughout the years, rather than merely a worry for a specific school. (NETRC, 2012). According to Heck (2009), schools are typically judged based on student accomplishment, and instructors cannot be separated from the schools they teach and the academic outcomes of schools.

 

Teachers have been shown to have a major influence on pupils’ academic achievement. They play an important part in educational accomplishment since the instructor is ultimately responsible for interpreting the approach energetically and standards based on practice during contact with pupils. Through the instructional strategies they employ in the classroom, they serve as the interface for the transmission of knowledge, values, and skills in the learning process. According to Watson (2003), teachers prefer instructional strategies that make their work easier based on their beliefs, personal preferences, and discipline norms.

 

However, according to Kimani et al (2013), if teachers’ instructional strategies are ineffective, students will make insufficient academic progress. The level of achievement of students in school is determined by the effectiveness of the teacher’s instructional strategies. When what is learned stays relatively permanent in the learner’s memory, learning is considered to have happened. As a result, it is critical for pupils to retain what they have learned. The ability to replicate a concept learned when needed is referred to as retention.

 

It is the learner’s ability to replicate a learned behavior in a timely manner. As a result, a learner who repeats previously acquired knowledge with less error is said to have retained the material. Similarly, learning becomes incomplete when what is not retained or fades over time. Exploring modes of lesson delivery that can help students retain material learned is critical (Asogwa, Muhammed, Asogwa & Ofoegbu, 2016). This study was conducted to examine the instructional strategies preferred and used by Science and Mathematics teachers and the impact of those strategies on their teaching performance and students’ academic achievement in Science and Mathematics. 1.2

 

Statement of the Problem

The review confirms that Basic science is not being taught the way it should be in Nigerian schools (Usman, 2008). (Usman, 2008). According to Brent (2005), it is to be perceived and done in a practical manner, instead schools train pupils to remember knowledge and offer them no space to perform science. This has influenced the performance of pupils in the subject. They do not only perform badly but have extremely minimal interest in it. According to the study, instructors’ classroom strategies enable students to autonomously plan, explore, gather evidence, evaluate it, and make findings and generalizations.

 

The use of action centers learners’ learning and may lead to meaningful learning and the development of scientific process skills. Students are also given adequate opportunities to develop and evaluate reasonable hypotheses in order to produce concepts that are anticipated in their native language (Mari, 2008). According to the literature, science instructors pass on 70% of scientific material or concepts to their pupils using lecture techniques (speaking and chalk method) (Bichi, 2002).

 

This has been identified as the cause of low accomplishment in Basic Science throughout the years (Bichi, 2002). Though the lecture style facilitates syllabus covering and lesson preparation for a diverse audience, the majority of scientific educators believe it is insufficient for encouraging meaningful learning among all types of learners (Bichi, 2002). This broad demand for instructional methodologies has the potential to significantly improve meaningful learning and scientific skill development.

 

This research suggests a classroom method for instructors. Science is a global vehicle for human growth and civilization. Basic scientific education works best when students participate and the instructor acts as a facilitator. According to Stanley (2007), various studies conducted to increase students’ academic progress in science did not alleviate the issue due to teachers’ perseverance in using the lecture technique in teaching Basic Science. According to Barker, Slingsby, Tilling, (2003), and Usman (2000), the indiscriminate use of the lecture approach remains, resulting in the low accomplishment of JSS students. In light of this, this research was designed to discover a long-term solution to instructors’ classroom strategies and academic accomplishment in Basic Science and Mathematics. 1.3 The Study’s Objectives The study’s goal is to look at instructors’ classroom strategies and academic success in Basic Science and Mathematics.

 

The study’s specific aims are as follows: i) To comprehend the classroom tactics used by instructors in the teaching of Basic Science and Mathematics. ii) Evaluate the students’ preferred teaching tactics in Basic Science and Mathematics. iii) To assess the teaching performance of Basic Science and Mathematics instructors. iv) To look at the academic success of pupils in Basic Science and Mathematics. 1.4

 

Questions for Research The study investigates the following research questions: i)               What are the instructional strategies being used by teachers in teaching Basic Science and Mathematics? ii)             What are the instructional strategies in Basic Science and Mathematics preferred by the students? iii)           What is the level of teaching performance of Basic Science and Mathematics teachers? iv)            What is the level of academic achievement of students in Basic Science and Mathematics? 1.5           Research Hypotheses The study has the following statements that will be tested as the research hypotheses: i)               There is a significant influence of the instructional strategies being used by teachers in teaching Basic Science and Mathematics on the academic achievement of students ii)

 

There is a significant relationship between instructional strategies in Basic Science and Mathematics preferred by the students and their academic achievement 1.6

 

Significance of the Study This research investigated the teachers’ classroom strategy and academic achievement in Basic Science and Mathematics. The findings of the study provide empirical evidence for further research in the area of the study. Besides, teachers of Basic Science would have insight and awareness of the effectiveness of each of the two teaching strategies being compared in the study. Curriculum designers would hopefully benefit from the findings of this study, fitting in activities to topics that require activity. Such findings may be developed in future curricula.

 

Textbook writers would hopefully find this study relevant to their profession in view of the fact that the effectiveness of two teaching strategies being investigated in Basic Science would be incorporated into their publications for effective teaching and learning. Stakeholders in education would hopefully benefit from this study in that teachers, lecturers will be aware of the topic that required activities in their teaching. 1.7

 

The scope of the Study was limited to JSS 2 students from two Government Junior Secondary Schools in Bosso Local Government Area of Niger State. The two schools are public schools with the same academic calendar, similar staffing, and similar provision of infrastructure. JSS 2 were selected because they are stable and have adequate exposure to Basic Science and Mathematics concepts. The topic selected for this study is “Measurement” which is central to JSS 2 curriculum and has applications to several other concepts. 1.8

 

The limitation of the Study limited its scope on the general teaching performance and academic achievement of students in Basic Science and Mathematics. The strength and weaknesses of teachers in specific areas were not determined by the study. The academic achievement of students in Basic Science and Mathematics was not also separately analyzed. 1.9

 

Definition of Terms The following terms were used in the build-up to this study: Academic Achievement: refers to the grade or rating of high school students in Basic Science and Mathematics during the first grading period. Demonstration Method: refers to instructional strategies that allow the students to actually observe how a particular procedure is being done. Instructional strategies: refers to the teaching strategies being executed by the teachers in delivering or explaining the concepts in Basic Science and Mathematics. Problem–Solving Method: refers to an instructional strategy that uses the scientific method. Project Method: refers to an instructional strategy that involves gathering and organizing information about the concept and presenting it in concrete form. Teaching performance: refers to the overall rating of Basic Science and Mathematics teachers in the Competency-Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers (CB-PAST) (CB-PAST).

1.1       Background to the Study

Today’s globe is undergoing tremendous growth, and every country is attempting to satisfy the requirements required to achieve its development via science and technology. Science and technology education is therefore essential to generate technologists, technicians, scientists, craftsmen, and skilled artisans who are required to alter the economy, resulting in the quick growth and development required for countries to deal with today’s difficulties (Ezeudu & Ezinwanne, 2013). Education is a critical human activity. It enables fashion and model persons in any culture to perform effectively in their surroundings. According to Boit et al. (2012), the goal of education is to provide citizens with the tools they need to transform their society and reduce inequality. Secondary education, in particular, is an important area for national and individual growth. It is critical in developing a country’s human resource base beyond elementary education (Achoka et. al, 2007).

 

According to UNESCO (2005), one of the markers of educational quality is learners’ cognitive performance. Student’s academic progress is measured by how well they score on standardized and formative examinations administered by their instructors. According to Lewin et al. (2011), the academic success of students at the secondary level is not only a predictor of school efficiency but also a key factor of the well-being of adolescents in particular and the country in general.

Science and mathematics are two of the key disciplines of the Philippine education system at the elementary and secondary levels. Modern Science and Mathematics education has been severely mandated across the nation in order to equip the younger generation to cope with the fast changes brought about by technological innovation and development (Corpuz et. al, 2006).

The National Achievement Test (NAT) is a Philippine-made standardized test administered by the Department of Education (DepEd) at the end of the school year to determine students’ achievement levels, strengths, and weaknesses in five key curricular areas (Science, Math, English, Filipino, and Araling Panlipunan). According to the NAT 2012 results, fourth-year students received an MPS of 46.37 for Mathematics, indicating a lower performance as compared to the previous year (47.82% in 2006 and 50.70% in 2005). Students’ performance in Science, on the other hand, has improved little. In 2005, the average rating was 39.49%; by 2012, it had risen to 40.53%.

 

Despite the government’s efforts to improve Filipino students’ performance in five important areas, most notably Science and Mathematics, the NAT results indicated that the student’s performance did not meet the seventy-five percent (75%) required performance rating on the stated test. Students’ underachievement in Science and Mathematics has become a nationwide problem throughout the years, rather than merely a worry for a specific school. (NETRC, 2012).

 

According to Heck (2009), schools are typically judged based on student accomplishment, and instructors cannot be separated from the schools they teach and the academic outcomes of schools. Teachers have been shown to have a major influence on pupils’ academic achievement. They play an important part in educational accomplishment since the instructor is ultimately responsible for interpreting the approach energetically and standards based on practice during contact with pupils.

 

Through the instructional tactics they deploy in the classroom, they serve as the interface for the transfer of information, values, and skills in the learning process. According to Watson (2003), instructors choose teaching tactics that make their job simpler based on their beliefs, personal preferences, and disciplinary norms. However, according to Kimani et al (2013), if instructors’ teaching tactics are inefficient, children would make insufficient academic development. The level of accomplishment of children in school is determined by the efficacy of the teacher’s teaching tactics.

 

When what is learned stays relatively permanent in the learner’s memory, learning is considered to have happened. As a result, it is critical for pupils to retain what they have learned. The capacity to duplicate a notion learned when needed is referred to as retention. It is the learner’s capacity to replicate a learned behavior in a timely manner. As a result, a learner who repeats previously learned information with less inaccuracy is considered to have retained the content.

 

Similarly, learning becomes incomplete when what is not kept or fades with time. Exploring modes of class delivery that might assist students to recall content learned is critical (Asogwa, Muhammed, Asogwa & Ofoegbu, 2016). The purpose of this study was to look into the instructional strategies that Science and Mathematics teachers prefer and use, as well as the impact of those strategies on their teaching performance and students’ academic achievement in Science and Mathematics.

 

1.2           Statement of the Problem

The review reveals that Basic science is not being taught the way it should in Nigerian classrooms (Usman, 2008). (Usman, 2008). According to Brent (2005), it should be viewed and practiced practically; instead, teachers teach students to memorize facts while leaving no room for them to do science. This has had an impact on student’s performance in the subject. They do not only perform poorly, but they are also uninterested in it. According to the study, instructors’ classroom strategies enable students to autonomously plan, explore, gather evidence, evaluate it, and make findings and generalizations.

 

The use of action centers learners’ learning and may lead to meaningful learning and the development of scientific process skills. Students are also given adequate opportunities to develop and evaluate reasonable hypotheses in order to produce concepts that are anticipated in their native language (Mari, 2008). According to the literature, science instructors pass on 70% of scientific material or concepts to their pupils using lecture techniques (speaking and chalk method) (Bichi, 2002).

 

This has been identified as the cause of low accomplishment in Basic Science throughout the years (Bichi, 2002). Though the lecture style facilitates syllabus covering and lesson preparation for a diverse audience, the majority of scientific educators believe it is insufficient for encouraging meaningful learning among all types of learners (Bichi, 2002). This broad demand for instructional methodologies has the potential to significantly improve meaningful learning and scientific skill development. This research suggests a classroom method for instructors. Science is a global vehicle for human growth and civilization.

 

Basic scientific education works best when students participate and the instructor acts as a facilitator. According to Stanley (2007), various studies conducted to increase students’ academic progress in science did not alleviate the issue due to teachers’ perseverance in using the lecture technique in teaching Basic Science. According to Barker, Slingsby, Tilling, (2003), and Usman (2000), the indiscriminate use of the lecture approach remains, resulting in the low accomplishment of JSS students. In light of this, this research was designed to discover a long-term solution to instructors’ classroom strategies and academic accomplishment in Basic Science and Mathematics.

 

1.3 The Study’s Objectives The study’s goal is to look at instructors’ classroom strategies and academic success in Basic Science and Mathematics. The study’s specific aims are as follows:

I To comprehend the classroom tactics used by instructors in the teaching of Basic Science and Mathematics.

ii) Evaluate the students’ preferred teaching tactics in Basic Science and Mathematics.

iii) To assess the teaching performance of Basic Science and Mathematics instructors.

iv) To look at the academic success of pupils in Basic Science and Mathematics.

1.4 Questions for Research
The research questions investigated in this study are as follows:

I What instructional techniques are instructors using while teaching Basic Science and Mathematics?

ii) What are the students’ favorite teaching methodologies in Basic Science and Mathematics?

iii) What are the degree of performance of Basic Science and Mathematics instructors in the classroom?

iv) What is the academic attainment level of pupils in Basic Science and Mathematics?

1.5 Hypotheses for Research The following claims will be examined as research hypotheses in the study:

The instructional tactics utilized by instructors in teaching Basic Science and Mathematics have a considerable impact on student’s academic progress.

ii) There is a substantial association between students’ chosen teaching techniques in Basic Science and Mathematics and their academic progress.

1.6 The Importance of the Research This study looked at instructors’ classroom strategies and academic success in Basic Science and Mathematics. The study’s results give empirical data for further research in the field. Furthermore, Basic Science instructors would gain insight and understanding of the efficacy of each of the two teaching techniques being evaluated in the research.

The outcomes of this research should help curriculum designers incorporate exercises into subjects that demand action. Such discoveries might be included in future curricula. Because the efficacy of two teaching methodologies being examined in Basic Science will be included in their publications for successful teaching and learning, textbook authors should find this study useful to their profession. This research should help education stakeholders in the sense that instructors and lecturers would be aware of the issue that requires actions in their teaching.

1.7 Purpose of the Research was confined to JSS 2 pupils from two Government Junior Secondary Schools in Niger State’s Bosso Local Government Area. The two schools are public institutions with the same academic schedule, the same personnel, and similar infrastructural supply. JSS 2 was chosen because they are steady and have had appropriate exposure to Basic Science and Mathematics ideas. This study’s theme is “Measurement,” which is essential to the JSS 2 curriculum and has applicability to various other topics.

1.8 The Study’s Limitations

The research focused on general teaching performance and academic success in Basic Science and Mathematics pupils. The survey did not assess instructors’ strengths and weaknesses in particular areas. Students’ scholastic performance in Basic Science and Mathematics was not individually examined.

1.9 Definitions of Terms

In the lead-up to this investigation, the following words were used:

Academic Achievement: refers to a high school student’s grade or rating in Basic Science and Mathematics during the first grading period.

Demonstration Method: refers to teaching tactics that enable students to watch how a certain operation is carried out.

Instructional techniques are the instructional tactics used by instructors to communicate or explain topics in Basic Science and Mathematics.

Problem-Solving Method: An teaching style that employs the scientific method.

Project Method: An educational technique that entails collecting and arranging information about a subject before delivering it in concrete form.

The total evaluation of Basic Science and Mathematics instructors in the Competency-Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers is referred to as teaching performance (CB-PAST).