EFFECT OF COVID-19 ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN MAKURDI AREA OF BENUE STATE CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study As mentioned by the World Health Organization (WHO), COVID-19 is a family of viruses that leads to diseases ranging from the usual cold to more dangerous illnesses like acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) (MERS).

These viruses were first transferred from animals to humans. SARS, for example, was spread from civet cats to people whereas MERS went to humans via a species of camel. A few identified COVID-19 are spreading in animals that have yet to afflict humans.

The term Coronavirus originates from the Latin word corona, which means crown or halo. Under an electron microscope, it seems as if it is encircled by a solar corona. The pandemic Coronavirus, reported by Chinese officials on January 7 and later called SARS-CoV-2, is another strain that had not been previously found in individuals.

Little is known about it, however, human-to-human transmission has been validated (Ajazeera, 2020). (Ajazeera, 2020). According to the WHO, indications of infection include fever, cough, and difficulty to breath very well, and shortness of breath. In more severe circumstances, it may trigger pneumonia, various organ failure, and even death. Current assessments of the incubation period – the duration between infection and the appearance of symptoms – span from one to 14 days.

Most infected persons exhibit signs within five to six days. Nonetheless, infected folks might also be asymptomatic, which indicates they do not exhibit any indicators in spite of having the virus in their body systems (Ajazeera, 2020). (Ajazeera, 2020). Many governmental steps were implemented to reduce the threat of the virus spreading. Some of these measures include travel bans or restrictions, compulsory isolation for travelers, social distancing, bans on public gatherings, schools closures, business closures, self-isolation, work from the home method employed by many corporate business organizations, curfews, and lockdowns (Bedford et al., 2020; Gostin and Wiley, 2020).

(Bedford et al., 2020; Gostin and Wiley, 2020). Authorities in various countries globally proclaimed either lockdown or curfew as a measure to halt the speedy spread of viral infection (Paital et al., 2020). (Paital et al., 2020). These acts probably had a considerable detrimental influence on business, education, health, and the hotel sector (Pragholapati, 2020). (Pragholapati, 2020).

The coronavirus pandemic has had a major influence on all levels of the school system (Nicola et al, 2020). (Nicola et al, 2020). Educational institutions all around the globe (in 192 countries) were either momentarily shut or imposed localized closures affecting roughly 1.7 billion population of students throughout the world (UNESCO 2020). (UNESCO 2020).

Many elementary schools throughout the globe either postponed or canceled all school activities to prevent gatherings and as well decrease the spread of the illness. Consequently, these measures lead to increased economical, medical, and social ramifications for students (Nicola et al, 2020; Esposito and Principi, 2020). (Nicola et al, 2020; Esposito and Principi, 2020). As a consequence of the suspension of classroom instruction in many schools, a move to online teaching for students from elementary education to higher education proved successful [reviewed in (Sahu, 2020; Yamin, 2020). (Sahu, 2020; Yamin, 2020).

This sort of learning presents an alternate approach to minimize either the interaction between students themselves or between the students and professors or lecturers as the case may be (Pragholapati, 2020). (Pragholapati, 2020). However, UNESCO (2020) indicated that many pupils have no access to online instruction owing to a lack of either the means or the instruments due to the financial and digital gap. Makurdi is the capital of Benue State which also acts as the headquarters of Makurdi Local Government Area, with the following districts of Makurdi (Rural) having the villages of Adaka, Adeke, Ajam, Agbadu, Agbeshir, Agenada, Akaan, Aki, Akigwe, Akpehe, Akume, Alla, and Anter. The neighborhood is home to various educational institutions. Among the educational institutions are public senior primary schools and private primary schools.

Sometimes around March 2020, many public and private schools were shut down in line with the federal government’s directions that all educational institutions should be shut down to limit the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. This research consequently attempts to assess the influence of COVID-19 on the academic performance of primary school kids in Makurdi district of Benue State, Nigeria. 1.2

Statement of the Problem In the account of UNESCO, over 35.9 million primary and secondary school pupils were out-of-school as a consequence of the school closures in 2020. For elementary schools, this figure totals around 25.6 million pupils, of whom about 87 percent (23.5 million) were kids enrolled in public schools.

The figures were almost as stark for secondary school pupils. Of the nearly 10.3 million secondary school pupils who were out of school as a consequence of the shutdown, about 81 percent (8.4 million) of them were public school students.

There was no assurance that all the learners who left the school would be back in school after the pandemic lockdown; some might have changed their lives view seeing going to school as a waste of time, and some might have died as a result of the pandemic or reasons unknown, some would have changed school, some might have joined bad groups shifting their attention away from school. Etc.

Here is where the role of parents and supervision comes in to guarantee the right well-being of learners even when they remained back home. Unfortunately learning inside the families was as well restricted by looking at the literacy level of certain parents in Nigeria; not every parent could manage well the pedagogical element of parenting and besides other responsibilities of parents need to be regarded.

The effect of this was not easily noticed now; the future of a child in this category is naturally exposed to a serious academic crash or underperformance if there are no proper interventions, because even now that the ban on movement is lifted and schools are reopened, majority of students will are not learning and they have become a nuisance to the societies.

Objectives of the Study The major goal of this research is to assess the influence of COVID-19 on the academic performance of primary school kids in Makurdi district of Benue State. However, the research attempted to explore the following particular objectives: To examine whether COVID-19 schools stoppage has effects on the academic performance of primary school kids in Makurdi region of Benue State To comprehend the importance of elementary education to the entire development of the child To study the influence of COVID-19 epidemic on schooling in Nigeria To find out the steps done by several schools to guarantee the continuation of classroom teaching and learning during coronavirus pandemic To examine out the obstacles experienced by certain schools and kids to enable the continuation of classroom teaching and learning during coronavirus pandemic 1.4

Research Questions The undertaking of this research project will be directed by the following research questions:

To what degree did COVID-19 school closure impact repercussions on the academic achievement of primary school kids in Makurdi district of Benue State?

What is the importance of basic education to the entire development of the child? Does the COVID-19 epidemic have an effect on schooling in Nigeria?

What are the steps done by certain schools to guarantee the continuation of classroom teaching and learning during the coronavirus pandemic? What are the problems experienced by certain schools and kids to guarantee the continuation of classroom teaching and learning during the coronavirus pandemic? 1.5

Research Hypotheses The following research hypotheses will be examined by the researcher throughout the course of the study: There is a substantial association between COVID-19 schools closure and the academic achievement of elementary school kids There is a considerable association between basic education and the overall development of children There is no major influence of COVID-19 on education in Nigeria 1.6

Significance of the Study The research is essential as it will offer insight into the Makurdi region of Benue State. This investigation will allow the administration to establish the extent of harm the school’s shutdown has created. Furthermore, the study will again be valuable for researchers, learners, and instructors. Government officials, policymakers, and school administrators will profit from the advice of the research. 1.7

Scope and Limitations of the Study This study endeavor is focused on examining explore the influence of COVID-19 on the academic performance of Nigerian pupils. A case study of kids in elementary schools in Makurdi district of Benue State. The research was confined to primary school education in Nigeria and COVID-19 side effects on primary academic performance which include academic impacts, pupils’ performance, and their present status. The research is confined to the public and private primary school kids in Makurdi region of Benue State, Nigeria, and teachers of the chosen primary schools.

This study has main constraints which include the difficulty of the researcher to go far and wide to successfully carry out this research as planned owing to the insecurity problem in the country and money restrictions and time elements. 1.1

Background to the Study As mentioned by the World Health Organization (WHO), COVID-19 is a family of viruses that leads to diseases ranging from the usual cold to more dangerous illnesses like acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) (MERS). These viruses were first transferred from animals to humans. SARS, for example, was spread from civet cats to people whereas MERS went to humans via a species of camel. A few identified COVID-19 are spreading in animals that have yet to afflict humans.

The term Coronavirus originates from the Latin word corona, which means crown or halo. Under an electron microscope, it seems as if it is encircled by a solar corona. The pandemic Coronavirus, reported by Chinese officials on January 7 and later called SARS-CoV-2, is another strain that had not been previously found in individuals. Little is known about it, however, human-to-human transmission has been validated (Ajazeera, 2020). (Ajazeera, 2020).

According to the WHO, indications of infection include fever, cough, difficulty to breath very well, and shortness of breath. In more severe circumstances, it may trigger pneumonia, various organ failure, and even death. Current assessments of the incubation period – the duration between infection and the appearance of symptoms – span from one to 14 days. Most infected persons exhibit signs within five to six days.

Nonetheless, infected folks might also be asymptomatic, which indicates they do not exhibit any indicators in spite of having the virus in their body systems (Ajazeera, 2020). (Ajazeera, 2020). Many governmental steps were implemented to reduce the threat of the virus spreading. Some of these measures include travel bans or restrictions, compulsory isolation for travelers, social distancing, bans on public gatherings, schools closures, business closures, self-isolation, work from the home method employed by many corporate business organizations, curfews, and lockdowns (Bedford et al., 2020; Gostin and Wiley, 2020). (Bedford et al., 2020; Gostin and Wiley, 2020).

Authorities in various countries globally proclaimed either lockdown or curfew as a measure to halt the speedy spread of viral infection (Paital et al., 2020). (Paital et al., 2020). These acts probably had a considerable detrimental influence on business, education, health, and the hotel sector (Pragholapati, 2020). (Pragholapati, 2020). The coronavirus pandemic has had a major influence on all levels of the school system (Nicola et al, 2020). (Nicola et al, 2020). Educational institutions all around the globe (in 192 countries) were either momentarily shut or imposed localized closures affecting roughly 1.7 billion population of students throughout the world (UNESCO 2020).

(UNESCO 2020). Many elementary schools throughout the globe either postponed or canceled all school activities to prevent gatherings and as well decrease the spread of the illness. Consequently, these measures lead to increased economical, medical, and social ramifications for students (Nicola et al, 2020; Esposito and Principi, 2020). (Nicola et al, 2020; Esposito and Principi, 2020). As a consequence of the suspension of classroom instruction in many schools, a move to online teaching for students from elementary education to higher education proved successful [reviewed in (Sahu, 2020; Yamin, 2020). (Sahu, 2020; Yamin, 2020).

This sort of learning presents an alternate approach to minimize either the interaction between students themselves or between the students and professors or lecturers as the case may be (Pragholapati, 2020). (Pragholapati, 2020).

However, UNESCO (2020) indicated that many pupils have no access to online instruction owing to a lack of either the means or the instruments due to the financial and digital gap. Makurdi is the capital of Benue State which also acts as the headquarters of Makurdi Local Government Area, with the following districts of Makurdi (Rural) having the villages of Adaka, Adeke, Ajam, Agbadu, Agbeshir, Agenada, Akaan, Aki, Akigwe, Akpehe, Akume, Alla, and Anter. The neighborhood is home to various educational institutions.

Among the educational institutions are public senior primary schools and private primary schools. Sometimes around March 2020, many public and private schools were shut down in line with the federal government’s directions that all educational institutions should be shut down to limit the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. This research consequently attempts to assess the influence of COVID-19 on the academic performance of primary school kids in Makurdi district of Benue State, Nigeria. 1.2

Statement of the Problem In the account to UNESCO, over 35.9 million primary and secondary school pupils were out-of-school as a consequence of the school closures in 2020. For elementary schools, this figure totals around 25.6 million pupils, of whom about 87 percent (23.5 million) were kids enrolled in public schools.

The figures were almost as stark for secondary school pupils. Of the nearly 10.3 million secondary school pupils who were out of school as a consequence of the shutdown, about 81 percent (8.4 million) of them were public school students.

There was no assurance that all the learners who left the school would be back in school after the pandemic lockdown; some might have changed their lives view seeing going to school as a waste of time, and some might have died as a result of the pandemic or reasons unknown, some would have changed school, some might have joined bad groups shifting their attention away from school. Etc. here is where the role of parents and supervision comes in to guarantee the right well-being of learners even when they remained back home.

Unfortunately learning inside the families was as well restricted by looking at the literacy level of certain parents in Nigeria; not every parent could manage well the pedagogical element of parenting and besides other responsibilities of parents need to be regarded.

The effect of this was not easily noticed now; the future of a child in this category is naturally exposed to a serious academic crash or underperformance if there are no proper interventions, because even now that the ban on movement is lifted and schools are reopened, majority of students will are not learning and they have become a nuisance to the societies.

The major goals of this research are to assess the influence of COVID-19 on the academic performance of primary school kids in Makurdi district of Benue State. However, the research attempted to explore the following particular objectives: 1.4       Research Questions The undertaking of this research project will be directed by the following research questions: 1.5

Research Hypotheses The following research hypotheses will be examined by the researcher throughout the course of the study: 1.6

Significance of the Study The research is essential as it will offer insight into the Makurdi region of Benue State. This investigation will allow the administration to establish the extent of harm the school’s shutdown has created. Furthermore, the study will again be valuable for researchers, learners, and instructors. Government officials, policymakers, and school administrators will profit from the advice of the research. 1.7

Scope and Limitations of the Study This study endeavor is focused on examining explore the influence of COVID-19 on the academic performance of Nigerian pupils. A case study of kids in elementary schools in Makurdi district of Benue State.

The research was confined to primary school education in Nigeria and COVID-19 side effects on primary academic performance which include academic impacts, pupils’ performance, and their present status.

The research is confined to the public and private primary school kids in Makurdi region of Benue State, Nigeria, and teachers of the chosen primary schools. This study has major limitations which include the inability of the researcher to travel far and wide to effectively carry out this research as desired due to the insecurity issue in the nation and financial constraint and time factor.” (“EFFECT OF COVID-19 ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN MAKURDI AREA OF BENUE STATE”)