EFFECT OF DEMONSTRATION AND ROLE PLAYING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN LAGOS STATE PRIMARY SCHOOLS

INTRODUCTION TO CHAPTER ONE 1.1

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Education is the most powerful tool for any nation’s academic growth, social mobilization, political endurance, and successful national development. It builds Nigeria’s largest enterprise, which is why the government continues to make funding, educational facilities, instructional resources, teaching professionals, and a favorable learning environment accessible for the sector in Lagos State.

 

The state government has consistently encouraged primary education by taking a social demand approach to planning the education sector, ensuring that every child in the state receives at least primary education (this was more pronounced during the administration of Babatunde Raji Fashola), in line with Archibong’s (2013) position that quality education does not happen by chance but can be achieved through continuous improvement efforts by stakeholders. Education stakeholders have recently voiced worry over the poor performance of kids in Nigeria’s elementary schools, particularly in Lagos State. Some accused the school officials (headmasters) and instructors, while others blamed the students and parents.

 

Whoever is to blame, the truth remains that the school and its organizational administration have a link with students’ academic success (Olaleye, 2013). Sule (2013), in response to pundits on the nature of quality and as a percentage of improvement for the obvious decreasing trend in educational achievement, claimed that school administration (internal or external) has become a true tool for assessing teachers’ job performance. Educational experts have sought to delve into the underlying causes of low primary school performance. While some studies attribute the inadequacies to challenging curricular material, others attribute them to instructor factors.

 

According to Osalusi (2010), if youngsters are given the chance to be listened to and directed in a non-threatening environment, they will accomplish immensely in terms of problem-solving and decision-making. According to Osalusi, the lack of a child-centered teaching style leads to low student accomplishment. According to Zimmerman (2010), poor-quality teaching strategies are to blame for students’ low accomplishments. A significant majority of these results are teacher-related, raising concerns about instructors’ efficacy, particularly in the areas of demonstration and role-playing teaching tactics.

 

Many research studies support numerous instructional strategies that improve teaching and learning while also increasing achievement and interest among primary school students (Chiodo & Russell, 2006; Leming, Ellington, and Schug, 2006; Russell and Waters, 2010). Russell and Waters (2010) emphasized the importance of instructors connecting topic information to the interests of their students. Thus, learners’ interest in the topic is increased, and they are actively engaged in the learning process.

 

There is little question that some of these educational strategies are employed by certain instructors in our elementary schools. Despite the stated efficacy of some of the strategies and the potential of their application in teaching and learning, low accomplishment and interest continue. This necessitated the conduct of this research, which focused on the impact of demonstration and role-playing teaching tactics on students’ academic achievement. The term instructional technique refers to the actions and procedures that are used to achieve the purpose of a certain manner of teaching. According to ADPRIMA (2003), methods are the building blocks of learning, remembering, and successful learning.

 

Techniques promote the development of abilities that may be utilized to encourage and support learners in developing the ideas and processes needed to achieve the learning and teaching goals and objectives. Simulation activities centered on role play, dramatization, games, and other similar activities were planned for the students in this research. Methods may be described as how a teacher determines what students will learn. Method, according to Lawal and Oyeleye (2003), is an organized structure and systematic approach to accomplishing things. A method is a teacher’s method of teaching facts, ideas, and generalization; it is a systematic approach to teaching that instructors take.

 

The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of demonstration and role-acting teaching tactics on academic achievement in both public and private elementary schools in the study region. The lack or scarcity of facilities and equipment in primary schools would be a stumbling barrier and hindrance to primary school students’ good academic achievement. In light of this, it was decided to conduct a study on the influence of demonstration and role-acting teaching tactics on the academic performance of students in selected primary schools in Lagos state. 1.2 Formulation of the Problem Despite the government’s attempts to raise the level of elementary education and the country’s general educational progress, poor success among primary school students has continued.

 

Given the importance of the primary school curriculum, there is an undeniable necessity to educate properly using effective strategies. Experience and accessible data have shown that many instructors find it challenging to teach using different methods, tactics, approaches, and techniques throughout time. It is unknown if poor performance, low interest, or inadequate instruction are caused by instructors’ failure to properly use integrated methodologies. Okam (2012) demonstrates that, among the various problems in teaching and learning, inadequate instructional strategies play a significant influence.

 

Despite some attempts to ameliorate the problem by researchers such as Okam (2012) and Fadeiye (2005), there seems to be little indication that achievement and interest have improved. As a result, educational psychologists/theorists have frowned on teacher-centered teaching strategies throughout the years, a scenario devoid of active engagement, social contact, high accomplishment, and learner interest. Jean Piaget (cognitive development) and Lev Vygotsky are two educational psychologists/theorists who support this viewpoint (social development). However, there is little recorded material in Nigerian research on the impacts of simulation instructional style on children’s success and interest at the elementary level of school. The study’s issue is thus: what are the impacts of demonstration and role-acting teaching tactics on child academic performance? 1.3 The Study’s Objectives The research looked at the impact of demonstration and role-playing teaching tactics on students’ academic achievement in selected elementary schools in Lagos state.

 

However, the precise goals are as follows: To comprehend the impact of demonstration on elementary school student’s academic performance To investigate the effect of field trips on the academic performance of primary school students. To examine the impact of problem-solving on primary school student’s academic achievement. To assess the impact of the question-and-answer technique of teaching on the academic performance of primary school students.

 

To determine the impact of the laboratory teaching approach on the academic performance of primary school students. 1.4 Research Suggestions The study was driven by the following research questions: What influence does demonstrating have on primary school student’s academic performance? Is there any effect of field trips on elementary school student’s academic performance? What effect does problem-solving have on elementary school students’ academic performance? What effect does the question-and-answer technique of teaching have on the academic achievement of elementary school students? Is there any influence of the laboratory method of teaching on the academic achievement of primary school students? 1.5 Hypotheses for Research The following hypotheses were developed for testing at the 0.05 level of significance.

 

There is a considerable association between demonstration and elementary school students’ academic success. There is no substantial relationship between field trips and elementary school students’ academic achievement. There is no substantial impact of problem-solving on elementary school student’s academic achievement. The question-and-answer technique of teaching has a substantial association with elementary school students’ academic success. There is a considerable relationship between laboratory teaching methods and primary school student’s academic success. 1.6 Importance of the Research This study has theoretical and practical implications for education, teachers, students, professional organizations, and researchers. This research was based on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development (1954) and Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory (1978).

 

The importance of Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory is that it acknowledged the value of children’s active participation in learning activities via spontaneous interaction with their surroundings rather than passively waiting for the instructor to give them ready-made information. This has aided this research in organizing numerous events in which students participated in role acting and dramatization. The innovative scenarios and intriguing activities produced throughout the course of this research prompted students to engage in more mental activity. Lev Vygotsky’s learning theory emphasizes interpersonal interactions or cooperative learning activities in which students participate in learning.

 

The importance of Vygotsky’s theory of social development is that it recognizes social interaction as essential to student learning. As a result, the researchers used this approach to organize simulation-based activities for the students. In practice, the research would help to promote simulation teaching techniques and increase their usage among Nigerian instructors. Teachers would be exposed to the teaching approach via conferences, seminars, and workshops organized by teacher professional organizations.

 

Furthermore, the approach would be beneficial to instructors since it would serve as a guideline for selecting a more efficient educational strategy. The research would also assist the instructor since it would show the relative usefulness of simulation-based teaching strategies in terms of gender, child success, and interest. The efficiency with which instructors used the approach to education would improve students’ success and interest. Furthermore, students acquire, encode, retain, and remember information in various ways. The strategy would improve students’ retention and retrieval of material.

This would be accomplished via active engagement and concept construction/reconstruction by the students. Finally, the study would be useful to academics since it would serve as a benchmark for comparing comparable studies conducted outside of Lagos State or Nigeria in order to encourage the globalization of educational research. Furthermore, it would contribute to the current pool of information on school location/gender studies and serve as a foundation for future research, resulting in an expanded body of knowledge. 1.7 Scope of the Research was conducted in the Ibeju Lekki Education Zone of Lagos State. The co-educational schools are found throughout the zone’s urban and rural regions. The research included elementary six students from each of the twelve schools.

 

The research investigated the impact of demonstration and role-playing teaching tactics on the academic achievement of students in a sample of Lagos state elementary schools. The simulation instructional approach was used to investigate the influence of location, gender, and the interaction effect on these moderating factors. The following topics were addressed in the curriculum: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Sexually Transmitted Diseases or Infections, Drug Abuse, and Gender Discrimination.

1.1 Introduction to the Research

Education is the most powerful tool for any nation’s academic growth, social mobilization, political endurance, and successful national development. It builds Nigeria’s largest enterprise, which is why the government continues to make funding, educational facilities, instructional resources, teaching professionals, and a favorable learning environment accessible for the sector in Lagos State. The state government has consistently encouraged primary education by taking a social demand approach to planning the education sector, ensuring that every child in the state receives at least primary education (this was more pronounced during the administration of Babatunde Raji Fashola), in line with Archibong’s (2013) position that quality education does not happen by chance but can be achieved through continuous improvement efforts by stakeholders.

Education stakeholders have recently voiced worry over the poor performance of kids in Nigeria’s elementary schools, particularly in Lagos State. Some accused the school officials (headmasters) and instructors, while others blamed the students and parents. Whoever is to blame, the truth remains that the school and its organizational administration have a link with students’ academic success (Olaleye, 2013). Sule (2013), in response to pundits on the nature of quality and as a percentage of improvement for the obvious decreasing trend in educational achievement, claimed that school administration (internal or external) has become a true tool for assessing teachers’ job performance.

Educational experts have sought to delve into the underlying causes of low primary school performance. While some studies attribute the inadequacies to challenging curricular material, others attribute them to instructor factors. According to Osalusi (2010), if youngsters are given the chance to be listened to and directed in a non-threatening environment, they will accomplish immensely in terms of problem-solving and decision-making. According to Osalusi, the lack of a child-centered teaching style leads to low student accomplishment. According to Zimmerman (2010), poor-quality teaching strategies are to blame for students’ low accomplishments. A significant majority of these results are teacher-related, raising concerns about instructors’ efficacy, particularly in the areas of demonstration and role-playing teaching tactics.

Many research studies support numerous instructional strategies that improve teaching and learning while also increasing achievement and interest among primary school students (Chiodo & Russell, 2006; Leming, Ellington, and Schug, 2006; Russell Waters, 2010). Russell and Waters (2010) emphasized the importance of instructors connecting topic information to the interests of their students. Thus, learners’ interest in the topic is increased, and they are actively engaged in the learning process. There is little question that some of these educational strategies are employed by certain instructors in our elementary schools. Despite the stated efficacy of some of the strategies and the potential of their application in teaching and learning, low accomplishment and interest continue. This necessitated the conduct of this research, which focused on the impact of demonstration and role-playing teaching tactics on students’ academic achievement.

The term instructional technique refers to the actions and procedures that are used to achieve the purpose of a certain manner of teaching. According to ADPRIMA (2003), methods are the building blocks of learning, remembering, and successful learning. Techniques promote the development of abilities that may be utilized to encourage and support learners in developing the ideas and processes needed to achieve the learning and teaching goals and objectives. Simulation activities centered on role play, dramatization, games, and other similar activities were planned for the students in this research. Methods may be described as how a teacher determines what students will learn. Method, according to Lawal and Oyeleye (2003), is an organized structure and systematic approach to accomplishing things. A method is a teacher’s method of teaching facts, ideas, and generalization; it is a systematic approach to teaching that instructors take.

The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of demonstration and role-acting teaching tactics on academic achievement in both public and private elementary schools in the study region. The lack or scarcity of facilities and equipment in primary schools would be a stumbling barrier and hindrance to primary school students’ good academic achievement. In light of this, it was decided to conduct a study on the influence of demonstration and role-acting teaching tactics on the academic performance of students in selected primary schools in Lagos state.

1.2 Formulation of the Problem

Despite the government’s attempts to raise the level of elementary education and the country’s general educational progress, poor success among primary school students has continued. Given the importance of the primary school curriculum, there is an undeniable necessity to educate properly using effective strategies. Experience and accessible data have shown that many instructors find it challenging to teach using different methods, tactics, approaches, and techniques throughout time. It is unknown if poor performance, low interest, or inadequate instruction are caused by instructors’ failure to properly use integrated methodologies.

Okam (2012) demonstrates that, among the various problems in teaching and learning, inadequate instructional strategies play a significant influence. Despite some attempts to ameliorate the problem by researchers such as Okam (2012) and Fadeiye (2005), there seems to be little indication that achievement and interest have improved. As a result, educational psychologists/theorists have frowned on teacher-centered teaching strategies throughout the years, a scenario devoid of active engagement, social contact, high accomplishment, and learner interest. Jean Piaget (cognitive development) and Lev Vygotsky are two educational psychologists/theorists who support this viewpoint (social development).

However, there is little recorded material in Nigerian research on the impacts of simulation instructional style on children’s success and interest at the elementary level of school. The study’s issue is thus: what are the impacts of demonstration and role-acting teaching tactics on child academic performance?

1.3 The Study’s Objectives

The research looked at the impact of demonstration and role-playing teaching tactics on students’ academic achievement in selected elementary schools in Lagos state. However, the precise goals are as follows:

1.4 Research Suggestions

The study was driven by the following research questions:

1.5 Hypotheses for Research

The following hypotheses were developed for testing at the 0.05 level of significance.

1.6 Importance of the Research

This study has theoretical and practical implications for education, teachers, students, professional organizations, and researchers. This research was based on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development (1954) and Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory (1978).

The importance of Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory is that it acknowledged the value of children’s active participation in learning activities via spontaneous interaction with their surroundings rather than passively waiting for the instructor to give them ready-made information. This has aided this research in organizing numerous events in which students participated in role acting and dramatization. The innovative scenarios and intriguing activities produced throughout the course of this research prompted students to engage in more mental activity.

Lev Vygotsky’s learning theory emphasizes interpersonal interactions or cooperative learning activities in which students participate in learning. The importance of Vygotsky’s theory of social development is that it recognizes social interaction as essential to student learning. As a result, the researchers used this approach to organize simulation-based activities for the students.

In practice, the research would help to promote simulation teaching techniques and increase their usage among Nigerian instructors. Teachers would be exposed to the teaching approach via conferences, seminars, and workshops organized by teacher professional organizations.

Furthermore, the approach would be beneficial to instructors since it would serve as a guideline for selecting a more efficient educational strategy. The research would also assist the instructor since it would show the relative usefulness of simulation-based teaching strategies in terms of gender, child success, and interest. The efficiency with which instructors used the approach to education would improve students’ success and interest.

Furthermore, students acquire, encode, retain, and remember information in various ways. The strategy would improve students’ retention and retrieval of material. This would be accomplished via active engagement and concept construction/reconstruction by the students.

Finally, the study would be useful to academics since it would serve as a benchmark for comparing comparable studies conducted outside of Lagos State or Nigeria in order to encourage the globalization of educational research. Furthermore, it would contribute to the current pool of information on school location/gender studies and serve as a foundation for future research, resulting in an expanded body of knowledge.

1.7 Scope of the Research

The research was conducted in the Ibeju Lekki Education Zone of Lagos State. The co-educational schools are found throughout the zone’s urban and rural regions. The research included elementary six students from each of the twelve schools. The research investigated the impact of demonstration and role-playing teaching tactics on the academic achievement of students in a sample of Lagos state elementary schools. The simulation instructional approach was used to investigate the influence of location, gender, and the interaction effect on these moderating factors. The following topics were addressed in the curriculum: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Sexually Transmitted Diseases or Infections, Drug Abuse, and Gender Discrimination.