GENDER AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED NIGERIAN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES

ABSTRACT The research looked at the impact of gender on academic achievement in Nigerian public and private institutions. The study adds to our understanding of academic performance, gender, gender and academic performance, and variables influencing academic success among students. The research relied on the self-determination theory. The survey research design and interviews were used in the study. The data were evaluated using social science statistical software (SPSS). Descriptive analysis is used in the research to get the mean, frequency distribution, and percentage outcomes of the instrument answers.

 

Secondary data were evaluated statistically utilizing procedures such as regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings revealed that: adequate funding for Nigerian Universities will improve the academic performance of students; having too many universities will reduce the quality of the academic performance of students; strict monitoring of the academic programs of the Nigerian Universities by the appropriate regulatory agency will improve the academic performance of students; collaboration and international linkage between foreign universities and Nigerian universities will improve the academic performance of students; Second, consistent class attendance improves academic performance; correct time management by students improves academic performance; proper teaching techniques assure students’ high academic performance, and additional reading and quality research papers improve students’ academic success.

 

Third, private university students pay money or engage in sexual activities to earn their grades; continuous strike action in public universities leads to poor academic performance; teachers in private universities are not qualified to teach in a university system, and the curriculum of private universities in Nigeria is less extensive than that of public universities in Nigeria. Finally, their school provides a serene environment for effective learning; their school has the basic infrastructures such as school buildings, well-ventilated classrooms, and libraries required to improve student academic performance; their school is equipped with experienced and quality teaching staff, and the majority of respondents are satisfied with their classroom learning conditions.

 

The interview results revealed that the adoption of appropriate teaching methods, a positive mental attitude, paying more attention in class and having the ability to ask questions, attending tutorials, provision of serene and well-ventilated lecturer rooms, and finally, it was observed that the government should ensure that lecturers are adequately paid towards boosting their morale f According to the study, in order to improve the academic performance of students in both private and public universities, the government should ensure that equal opportunities and learning activities are provided to both genders in our universities (that is, no gender should be given any special treatment), institutions should ensure the provision of basic infrastructures such as libraries, ICT facilities, and so on, and the government should ensure the provision of adequate funding.

The study also suggests that the government should put in place adequate machinery to constantly inspect universities; that university management should improve lecturers’ working conditions by increasing their pay and fringe benefits to motivate them to work; and that the government should, as a matter of necessity, equip all government or public universities with basic amenities such as classrooms, libraries, ICT, water, and lights, among other things.

 

INTRODUCTION TO CHAPTER ONE 1.1. THE STUDY’S BACKGROUND Education is regarded as the initial step in every human endeavor since it contributes significantly to the development of human capital as well as a person’s well-being and prospects for an improved life. Education in Nigeria is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, and one of the ministry’s goals is to provide a quality education system in the country. Schools, whether public or private, have a variety of stakeholders who participate in various activities. The youth population has been described as the nation’s future, implying that any nation’s well-being and development are dependent on the resourcefulness of its youth population (Nwangwu, 2000).

 

As a result, governments must pay enough attention to the development of children, and one significant approach to accomplish this accomplishment is through excellent education. According to Adams (2012), education increases people’s skills, and institutional capacity, and acts as a catalyst for the closely associated economic, social, cultural, and demographic developments that culminate in national development. This indicates that any country seeking long-term prosperity and better quality of life for its population must invest in excellent education. As a result, education is very important in public administration as well as other fields. Academic performance is defined as the quality and amount of information, skills, methods, good attitudes, conduct, and philosophy attained or acquired by students.

 

This accomplishment is measured by the mark or grade that pupils get at the end of a term or educational cycle (Ali, 2013). The degree of academic achievement is determined by the quality of grades and the number of students that pass in each grade. Academic performance is the most crucial problem for teachers, parents, guardians, students, and other public stakeholders in a country’s education system. This problem affects all educational courses and all stages of education, including elementary, intermediate, and postsecondary. A good academic performance for any class of pupils indicates that learning is successful, while a low academic performance indicates that the learning process is everything but effective.

 

There are several motivations for striving for academic excellence. Some students, for example, want self-satisfaction or wish to exhibit their skills, whilst others strive for excellent academic achievement in order to please their parents or professors by demonstrating that they are making an effort and working hard (O’Reilly & McNamara, 2017). Gender disparities in academic accomplishment among students at public and private colleges have piqued the interest of local and international scholars and education policymakers. It is one of the current intellectual concerns being debated throughout the globe (Abdu-Raheem, 2017).

 

Gender has been highlighted as a factor influencing pupils’ academic achievement. However, Olaoye and Adu (2015) stated that there is no significant difference in the academic performance of students based on gender, but there is a substantial difference in the academic performance of students in Nigerian public and private institutions. Gender is a socially created phenomenon that occurs when society assigns different roles, responsibilities, behaviors, and mannerisms to the two sexes (Mangvwat, 2015). Betiku (2012) defines gender as “all the qualities or attributes of male and female that a specific civilization has decided and allocated to each sex.” According to Talabi, Emiola, and Ogunsakin (2013), the value of analyzing gender performance is based mostly on the socio-cultural inequalities between girls and boys.

 

Many occupations and professions have been seen as men’s, such as engineering, arts and crafts, agriculture, and so on, while others have been regarded as women’s, such as catering, typing, nursing, and so on. In actuality, parents give tasks to their sons such as vehicle washing, lawn trimming, bulb replacement, ladder climbing to repair or remove items, and so on (2015). As a consequence, a typical Nigerian girl would go to school with these preconceived notions. Given the idea that students’ gender may have an influence on their academic performance, this research will investigate any such link. The government of state funds and controls public universities. According to Adeyinka (2010), public universities are those that were formed, controlled, funded, and overseen by the government. He went on to say that such schools were built with tax dollars to educate the whole public, regardless of their economic, social, or political standing in society.

 

The government, not people, private interest groups, or agencies, controls public colleges. Following the establishment of Nigeria, all schools were managed and controlled by either the federal or state governments. Mojeeb Alabi, writing in the National Mirror on September 23rd, 2012, said that history seemed to be getting less attention; he linked this to frequent changes in government policy. He noted that Nigeria’s educational policy is extremely unfavorable to local content in the curriculum; nonetheless, lack of proper finance, low teacher salaries, and other factors have a negative impact on teaching and learning in most public schools. As a consequence of the above, private people, private groups, and organizations began to build, operate, and fund private schools in order to educate children while also profiting.

 

The owners and proprietors of such private schools are profiteers since they spent their money on establishing the schools, providing the required facilities and equipment, and hiring trained and competent instructors in order to provide a decent education to the students while also generating a profit. These private schools incorporate all courses, particularly those not taught in public schools, in their curricula.

 

According to Nwangwu (2012), private schools do what public schools cannot and relieve parents of the strain of having their children remain at home for extended periods of time due to recurrent strikes by public school instructors. In contrast to public schools, he claims that private schools operate without interruption in the school year, offering consistent and high-quality instruction. Okpara (2015) discovered that in NECO Examinations, the performance of students in private schools outperforms that of students in public schools. He further noted that since private schools are extensively monitored and regulated by school management boards, they do better in external exams.

 

The problem of student underperformance in Nigerian institutions nowadays is a hotly debated educational topic. In fixing any problem though, it is vital to understand the sources of such situations. Many reasons have been investigated as the etiological starting point for investigating the phenomenon of school success or failure. These issues are investigated from a variety of viewpoints, including the involvement of students, instructors, parents, or families, the school environment, society, government, and so on.

 

Among these are studies on the effects of students’ study habits (Ayodele & Adebiyi, 2013; Obasoro & Ayodele 2012), school environment (Adesoji & Olatunbosun, 2008; Okoro, 2004), teachers’ competencies (Akiri & Ugborugbo, 2011), parents’ economic status (Osonwa et al, 2013), continuous assessment (Kolawole & (Ugwulashi, 2012). Nonetheless, most researchers seem to agree on explaining failure from a multi-causal viewpoint, in which the phenomena are examined at various levels and numerous factors are implicated. Some of these experts asserted that there is no substantial gender difference in students’ academic performance and retention in various disciplines, but others discovered a considerable difference, with either boys or girls doing much better, Nneji (2011) & Amosun (2012). (2011).

 

So many elements contributed to the various findings reached by these researchers. Some of these determinants include the study area’s gender equality campaign, understanding, and implementation. According to Osakwe (2011), Nigeria has been the location of various kingdoms and consists of several tribes with distinct socio-cultural origins and belief systems; hence, gender equality campaigns, understanding, and implementation vary from place to place. Another explanation for the disparity in conclusions is the issue on which Akinsola’s gender equality is being assessed (2007).

 

For example, there has been widespread concern regarding gender discrepancies in students’ academic performance in mathematics, and some study has been conducted in this area in many regions of the world. Although some studies have shown no significant differences in male-female mathematics ability at any level, the majority have observed gender variances (Atovigba, 2012). The preceding demonstrates that the gender influence on academic performance at public and private institutions is a contentious topic that needs deeper research in individual subject areas.

 

This is why the subject has recently piqued the interest of academics and psychologists. It is encouraged that both male and female students be provided equal educational chances and be permitted to fully engage in teaching and learning circumstances. This technique is thought to help pupils take ownership of their learning and improve their performance regardless of gender. This study will investigate the influence of gender on the academic success of students at private and public institutions in Nigeria. 1.2. Research Problem Statement Education is recognized as a critical aspect of all human endeavors, regardless of gender, color, ethnicity, or tribe, since it plays a significant part in human growth as well as a person’s well-being and prospects for better living.

 

In Nigeria, the provision of quality and improved education is the responsibility of the Federal Ministry of Education, which has the constitutional authority to handle the educational system, whether it is a private or public school. To achieve the Ministry’s and the country’s educational goals, it is necessary to provide good learning and infrastructural facilities, well-equipped laboratories, conducive classroom environments, instructional materials, well-paid lecturers, and a level playing field for everyone, regardless of gender, so that everyone has equal chances of receiving quality learning and achieving academic excellence.

 

However, the country’s educational system is plagued by a persistent rate of student underperformance in both private and public universities, which can be attributed to sex for a grade, low quality and morale of lecturers, money for grades, overcrowded lecture rooms, inadequate instructional and learning facilities, parents’ inability to provide their children with money for textbooks and handouts, and other school requirements (Oguniji, 2011). The difficulties identified by Oguniji (2011) may be evident in many of Nigeria’s universities today, necessitating immediate action by the Ministry and other public stakeholders. Furthermore, research undertaken by Ali (2013) and Adesoji and Olatunbosun (2008) reveals that most Nigerian learning institutions have seen increased enrolment of students, resulting in big classes that have overburdened the teaching staff, which is relatively common in most public universities in Nigeria.

 

As a consequence, student performance will continue to deteriorate. Private universities, on the other hand, have an advantage over their public counterparts since they are better structured in terms of student enrollment and teaching/learning facilities, allowing them to “poach” intelligent students who end up achieving high scores on national tests. Good performance at private institutions has not only attracted many parents but has also left the public wondering what the key to their success may be. Despite significant government investment in public schools, little progress has been made in terms of performance.

 

To provide solutions, the research will investigate the influence of academic performance on gender at private and public Nigerian universities, utilizing Babcock University and the University of Lagos as case studies. 1.3. The Study’s Objectives The study’s main goal is to examine the effect of gender on the academic performance of students in Nigerian public and private universities, with specific goals including examining the state of the Nigerian University System; interrogating the factors that could lead to academic performance; analyzing the ongoing debate about academic performance between private and public universities; and evaluating institutional efforts to ensure a conducive learning environment. 1.4.

 

Research Issues The following research questions were presented for the study. What is the current situation of Nigeria’s university system? What elements may influence pupils’ academic performance? What is the current academic performance dispute between private and public universities? To what extent do private and public institutions make an attempt to create a favorable learning environment for academic performance? 1.5. Importance of the Research The significance of this research is to investigate the relationship between gender and the academic performance of students in Nigerian public and private institutions.

 

The study’s results will serve to identify areas where there are differences between private and public universities, which will be of considerable use to institution management, government, public stakeholders, parents, and society at large. As a result, it is anticipated that the outcomes of this research would push the government to improve learning circumstances and foster effective learning, particularly in our higher institutions. It is important for the lecturer since it will allow them to build appropriate teaching strategies and make the material they teach more relevant, engaging, and meaningful to the students or learners. Furthermore, it is anticipated that these results would increase student rivalry and interest in both male and female students’ courses.

 

This research will also help parents understand the value of advice and counseling in our tertiary institutions, allowing their children to pick courses based on their own ability or capacity, with the goal of contributing to the nation’s growth. Finally, the study may spark more interest and research on the subject. 1.6. The Study’s Scope The scope of this research is confined to Babcock University and the University of Lagos, which represent both private and public institutions in Nigeria’s South-West region, as well as the study subject, which is gender and academic performance at public and private Nigerian universities. The research spans the years 2015-2020. (6 years period). 1.7. Operational Terminology Definition Gender is the set of qualities that define and distinguish masculine and feminine. Academic Performance: the degree to which a student, instructor, or institution has met their short or long-term educational objectives. Curriculum: The sum total of student experiences that occur throughout the educational process.

 

Gender stereotypes are people’s ideas about the qualities of men and females. Private universities are often not run by the government, despite the fact that many get tax advantages, public student loans, and subsidies. In contrast to private universities, public universities are owned by the state or receive considerable public funding from a national or sub-national government. Lecturers: a person who provides lectures, usually as a job in a university or college of higher learning. 1.8.

 

Categorization The research understudy must include the following five chapters: Chapter one includes the introduction and body of the topic; Chapter two includes the literature review (concept of gender and academic performance, public and private universities, admission ratio, environmental factors, and institutional effort towards academic performance) and theoretical framework; Chapter three includes methodology and design, research instrument, sample, and sampling size; Chapter four includes data presentation and analysis, and Chapter five includes conclusion and recommendations.

The research looked at the impact of gender on academic achievement in Nigerian public and private institutions. The study adds to our understanding of academic performance, gender, gender and academic performance, and variables influencing academic success among students. The research relied on the self-determination theory.

The survey research design and interviews were used in the study. The data were evaluated using social science statistical software (SPSS). Descriptive analysis is used in the research to get the mean, frequency distribution, and percentage outcomes of the instrument answers. Secondary data were evaluated statistically utilizing procedures such as regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

The findings revealed that: adequate funding for Nigerian Universities will improve the academic performance of students; having too many universities will reduce the quality of the academic performance of students; strict monitoring of the academic programs of Nigerian Universities by the appropriate regulatory agency will improve the academic performance of students; collaboration and international linkage between foreign universities and Nigerian universities will improve the academic performance of students; Second, consistent class attendance improves academic performance; correct time management by students improves academic performance; proper teaching techniques assure students’ high academic performance, and additional reading and quality research papers improve students’ academic success.

 

Third, private university students pay money or engage in sexual activities to earn their grades; continuous strike action in public universities leads to poor academic performance; teachers in private universities are not qualified to teach in a university system, and the curriculum of private universities in Nigeria is less extensive than that of public universities in Nigeria. Finally, their school provides a serene environment for effective learning; their school has the basic infrastructures such as school buildings, well-ventilated classrooms, and libraries required to improve student academic performance; their school is equipped with experienced and quality teaching staff, and the majority of respondents are satisfied with their classroom learning conditions.

The interview results revealed that the adoption of appropriate teaching methods, a positive mental attitude, paying more attention in class and having the ability to ask questions, attending tutorials, provision of serene and well-ventilated lecturer rooms, and finally, it was observed that the government should ensure that lecturers are adequately paid towards boosting their morale.

According to the study, in order to improve the academic performance of students in both private and public universities, the government should ensure that equal opportunities and learning activities are provided to both genders in our universities (that is, no gender should be given any special treatment), institutions should ensure the provision of basic infrastructures such as libraries, ICT facilities, and so on, and the government should ensure the provision of adequate funding.

The study also suggests that the government should put in place adequate machinery to constantly inspect universities; that university management should improve lecturers’ working conditions by increasing their pay and fringe benefits to motivate them to work; and that the government should equip all government or public universities with basic amenities such as classrooms, libraries, ICT, water, and lights, among other things. Lecturers should use an acceptable and adequate teaching style to improve successful classroom teaching and student academic achievement.

 

Students should attend classes on a regular basis, pay attention in class, and use the library for further research and course assignments. The Nigerian University Commission (NUC) should guarantee that private institutions in Nigeria offer the essential amenities required to improve students’ academic performance.

1.1. The Study’s Background

Education is regarded as the initial step in every human endeavor since it contributes significantly to the development of human capital as well as a person’s well-being and prospects for an improved life. Education in Nigeria is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, and one of the ministry’s goals is to provide a quality education system in the country. Schools, whether public or private, have a variety of stakeholders who participate in various activities.

 

The young population has been defined as the nation’s future, implying that any nation’s well-being and progress are dependent on the inventiveness of its youth population (Nwangwu, 2000). As a result, governments must pay enough attention to the development of children, and one significant approach to accomplish this accomplishment is through excellent education.

According to Adams (2012), education increases people’s skills, and institutional capacity, and acts as a catalyst for the closely associated economic, social, cultural, and demographic developments that culminate in national development. This indicates that any country seeking long-term prosperity and better quality of life for its population must invest in excellent education. As a result, education is very important in public administration as well as other fields.

Academic performance is defined as the quality and amount of information, skills, methods, good attitudes, conduct, and philosophy attained or acquired by students. This accomplishment is measured by the mark or grade that pupils get at the end of a term or educational cycle (Ali, 2013). The degree of academic achievement is determined by the quality of grades and the number of students that pass in each grade. Academic performance is the most crucial problem for teachers, parents, guardians, students, and other public stakeholders in a country’s education system.

 

This problem affects all educational courses and all stages of education, including elementary, intermediate, and postsecondary. A good academic performance for any class of pupils indicates that learning is successful, while a low academic performance indicates that the learning process is everything but effective. There are several motivations for striving for academic excellence. Some students, for example, want self-satisfaction or wish to exhibit their skills, whilst others strive for excellent academic achievement in order to please their parents or professors by demonstrating that they are making an effort and working hard (O’Reilly & McNamara, 2017).

Gender disparities in academic accomplishment among students at public and private colleges have piqued the interest of local and international scholars and education policymakers. It is one of the current intellectual concerns being debated throughout the globe (Abdu-Raheem, 2017). Gender has been highlighted as a factor influencing pupils’ academic achievement. However, Olaoye and Adu (2015) stated that there is no significant difference in the academic performance of students based on gender, but there is a substantial difference in the academic performance of students in Nigerian public and private institutions. Gender is a socially created phenomenon that occur when society assigns different roles, responsibilities, behaviors, and mannerisms to the two sexes (Mangvwat, 2015).

Betiku (2012) defines gender as “all the qualities or attributes of male and female that a specific civilization has decided and allocated to each sex.” According to Talabi, Emiola, and Ogunsakin (2013), the value of analyzing gender performance is based mostly on the socio-cultural inequalities between girls and boys. Many occupations and professions have been seen as men’s, such as engineering, arts and crafts, agriculture, and so on, while others have been regarded as women’s, such as catering, typing, nursing, and so on. In actuality, parents give tasks to their sons such as vehicle washing, lawn trimming, bulb replacement, ladder climbing to repair or remove items, and so on (2015). As a consequence, a typical Nigerian girl would go to school with these preconceived notions. Given the idea that students’ gender may have an influence on their academic performance, this research will investigate any such link.

The government of state funds and controls public universities. According to Adeyinka (2010), public universities are those that were formed, controlled, funded, and overseen by the government. He went on to say that such schools were built with tax dollars to educate the whole public, regardless of their economic, social, or political standing in society. The government, not people, private interest groups, or agencies, controls public colleges. Following the establishment of Nigeria, all schools were managed and controlled by either the federal or state governments. Mojeeb Alabi, writing in the National Mirror on September 23rd, 2012, said that history seemed to be getting less attention; he linked this to frequent changes in government policy. H

 

e noted that Nigeria’s educational policy is extremely unfavorable to local content in the curriculum; nonetheless, lack of proper finance, low teacher salaries, and other factors have a negative impact on teaching and learning in most public schools.

As a consequence of the above, private people, private groups, and organizations began to build, operate, and fund private schools in order to educate children while also profiting. The owners and proprietors of such private schools are profiteers since they spent their money on establishing the schools, providing the required facilities and equipment, and hiring trained and competent instructors in order to provide a decent education to the students while also generating a profit. These private schools incorporate all courses, particularly those not taught in public schools, in their curricula.

 

According to Nwangwu (2012), private schools do what public schools cannot and relieve parents of the strain of having their children remain at home for extended periods of time due to recurrent strikes by public school instructors. In contrast to public schools, he claims that private schools operate without interruption in the school year, offering consistent and high-quality instruction. Okpara (2015) discovered that in NECO Examinations, the performance of students in private schools outperforms that of students in public schools. He further noted that since private schools are extensively monitored and regulated by school management boards, they do better in external exams.

The problem of student underperformance in Nigerian institutions nowadays is a hotly debated educational topic. However, understanding the causes of any problem is critical in order to solve it. Many reasons have been investigated as the etiological starting point for investigating the phenomenon of school success or failure. These issues are investigated from a variety of viewpoints, including the involvement of students, instructors, parents, or families, the school environment, society, government, and so on. Among these are studies on the effects of students’ study habits (Ayodele & Adebiyi, 2013; Obasoro & Ayodele 2012), school environment (Adesoji & Olatunbosun, 2008; Okoro, 2004), teachers’ competencies (Akiri & Ugborugbo, 2011), parents’ economic status (Osonwa et al, 2013), continuous assessment (Kolawole & (Ugwulashi, 2012). Nonetheless, most researchers seem to agree on explaining failure from a multi-causal viewpoint, in which the phenomena are examined at various levels and numerous factors are implicated.

Some of these scholars asserted that there is no significant gender difference in students’ academic performance and retention in various subjects, whereas others discovered a significant difference, with either boys or girls performing significantly better. Nneji and Amosun (2011) (2011). So many elements contributed to the various findings reached by these researchers. Some of these determinants include the study area’s gender equality campaign, understanding, and implementation. According to Osakwe (2011), Nigeria has been the location of various kingdoms and consists of several tribes with distinct socio-cultural origins and belief systems; hence, gender equality campaigns, understanding, and implementation vary from place to place.

Another explanation for the disparity in conclusions is the issue on which Akinsola’s gender equality is being assessed (2007). For example, there has been widespread concern regarding gender discrepancies in students’ academic performance in mathematics, and some study has been conducted in this area in many regions of the world. Although some studies have shown no significant differences in male-female mathematics ability at any level, the majority have observed gender variances (Atovigba, 2012).

The preceding demonstrates that the gender influence on academic performance at public and private institutions is a contentious topic that needs deeper research in individual subject areas. This is why the subject has recently piqued the interest of academics and psychologists. It is encouraged that both male and female students be provided equal educational chances and be permitted to fully engage in teaching and learning circumstances. This technique is thought to help pupils take ownership of their learning and improve their performance regardless of gender. This study will investigate the influence of gender on the academic success of students at private and public institutions in Nigeria.

1.2. Research Problem Statement

Education is recognized as a critical aspect of all human endeavors, regardless of gender, color, ethnicity, or tribe, since it plays a significant part in human growth as well as a person’s well-being and prospects for better living. In Nigeria, the provision of quality and improved education is the responsibility of the Federal Ministry of Education, which has the constitutional authority to handle the educational system, whether it is a private or public school. To achieve the Ministry’s and the country’s educational goals, it is necessary to provide good learning and infrastructural facilities, well-equipped laboratories, conducive classroom environments, instructional materials, well-paid lecturers, and a level playing field for everyone, regardless of gender, so that everyone has equal chances of receiving quality learning and achieving academic excellence.

However, the country’s educational system is plagued by a persistent rate of student underperformance in both private and public universities, which can be attributed to sex for a grade, low quality and morale of lecturers, money for grade, overcrowded lecture rooms, inadequate instructional and learning facilities, parents’ inability to provide their children with money for textbooks and handouts, and other school requirements (Oguniji, 2011). The difficulties identified by Oguniji (2011) may be evident in many of Nigeria’s universities today, necessitating immediate action by the Ministry and other public stakeholders.

Furthermore, research undertaken by Ali (2013) and Adesoji and Olatunbosun (2008) reveals that most Nigerian learning institutions have seen increased enrolment of students, resulting in big classes that have overburdened the teaching staff, which is relatively common in most public universities in Nigeria. As a consequence, student performance will continue to deteriorate. Private universities, on the other hand, have an advantage over their public counterparts since they are better structured in terms of student enrollment and teaching/learning facilities, allowing them to “poach” intelligent students who end up achieving high scores on national tests.

Good performance at private institutions has not only attracted many parents but has also left the public wondering what the key to their success may be. Despite significant government investment in public schools, little progress has been made in terms of performance. To provide solutions, the research will investigate the influence of academic performance on gender at private and public Nigerian universities, utilizing Babcock University and the University of Lagos as case studies.

1.3. The Study’s Objectives

The study’s primary goal is to investigate the influence of gender on the academic performance of students at Nigerian public and private institutions, with particular goals including:

For the study, the following research questions were posed.

1.5. Importance of the Research

The significance of this research is to investigate the relationship between gender and the academic performance of students in Nigerian public and private institutions. The study’s results will serve to identify areas where there are differences between private and public universities, which will be of considerable use to institution management, government, public stakeholders, parents, and society at large. As a result, it is anticipated that the outcomes of this research would push the government to improve learning circumstances and foster effective learning, particularly in our higher institutions. It is important for the lecturer since it will allow them to build appropriate teaching strategies and make the material they teach more relevant, engaging, and meaningful to the students or learners.

Furthermore, it is anticipated that these results would increase student rivalry and interest in both male and female students’ courses. This research will also help parents understand the value of advice and counseling in our tertiary institutions, allowing their children to pick courses based on their own ability or capacity, with the goal of contributing to the nation’s growth. Finally, the study may spark more interest and research on the subject.

The scope of this research is confined to Babcock University and the University of Lagos, which represent both private and public institutions in Nigeria’s South-West region, as well as the study subject, which is gender and academic performance at public and private Nigerian universities. The research spans the years 2015-2020. (6 years period).

1.7. Operational Terminology Definition

Gender is the set of qualities that define and distinguish masculine and feminine.

Academic Performance: the degree to which a student, instructor, or institution has met their short or long-term educational objectives.

Curriculum: The sum total of student experiences that occur throughout the educational process.

Gender stereotypes are people’s ideas about the qualities of men and females.

Private universities are often not run by the government, despite the fact that many get tax advantages, public student loans, and subsidies.

In contrast to private universities, public universities are owned by the state or receive considerable public funding from a national or sub-national government.

Lecturers: a person who provides lectures, usually as a job in a university or college of higher learning.

The research understudy must include the following five chapters:

Chapter one includes the introduction and body of the topic; Chapter two includes the literature review (concept of gender and academic performance, public and private universities, admission ratio, environmental factors, and institutional effort towards academic performance) and theoretical framework; Chapter three includes methodology and design, research instrument, sample, and sampling size; Chapter four includes data presentation and analysis, and Chapter five includes conclusion and recommendations.