The Impact of Instructional Materials on Economics Learning and Teaching in Senior Secondary Schools in Isolo LGA

Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the effects of economics instructional materials on economics learning and teaching, as well as the effects of these instructional materials on the academic performance of some secondary school students in some selected secondary schools in Lagos state’s Isolo Local Government Area. To correctly assess the influence of instructional materials on the application of learning economics in secondary schools in Nigeria, a well-designed and easy questionnaire was issued to economics instructors at these chosen schools.

In terms of methodology, the researcher employed a survey research design with a sample size of twenty (20) instructors and eighty (80) students chosen using a stratified sampling procedure. The research made use of both primary and secondary data. Primary data for the research came from questionnaires, whereas secondary data came from textbooks, the internet, journals, and periodicals.

The results of hypothesis three testing show that there would be a substantial positive change in secondary school students’ performance in the Economics language when they are taught the subject using instructional resources. The use of instructional resources in Economics teaching and learning clearly increases student performance.

Schools should equip instructors with adequate educational tools to help them explain their lessons. Adequate infrastructure and a conducive environment are required for successful learning and retention of what is learned. Schools should send their Economics professors to seminars and workshops to keep their expertise up to date.

Introduction to Chapter One 1.1 Background of the Study
The impact of instructional materials on student academic achievement, teaching and learning, and educational growth is undeniable. Economics education in Nigerian secondary schools must be handled effectively. The resources used by instructors to educate and hammer home their topic points at our education system’s elementary and secondary school levels are undeniably a critical problem in practical classroom interaction and effective information transfer from the teacher to the learners.

Instructional resources are items that help instructors make their teachings clear to students. They are also used to communicate information, thoughts, and notes to students (Ijaduola) (1997). Pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorders, radio, video, television, computers, and other visual and audiovisual tools are examples of instructional materials. These items enhance the regular instructional methods.

Economics as a discipline first appeared in 1776 with the publication of Adam Smith, the protagonist of the classical school of thinking; since then, it has played many roles, particularly in political and educational circles. Economics is divided into two broad categories: microeconomics and macroeconomics. While microeconomics examines the behavior and operations of particular economic units (households, businesses, and government agencies), macroeconomics examines the overall economy in aggregates and averages (Umoh, 2007). According to Aromolaran (2006), three key languages are utilized in economic instruction and communication. Theory or verbal language, geometric or graphical language, and algebraic or mathematical language are examples of these languages.

Economics is a vital topic that students must credit before being admitted to any higher institution, particularly the university, to study related courses such as Accountancy, Business Administration, Insurance, and so on. Because of the relevance and difficulty of this topic, appropriate teaching tools must be employed to teach it to students. This fact is corroborated by Macaulay (1989), who claims that visual aids bring lessons to life and help pupils learn more effectively.

Against this backdrop, this research seeks to investigate the degree to which the use of instructional materials may improve senior secondary school students’ economic performance.

Poor academic accomplishment in Economics might be attributable to a variety of variables, one of which was the teacher’s technique. This suggests that without the use of educational materials, comprehension of Economics ideas may be limited. Economics education without instructional resources will almost probably result in low academic results. According to Franzer, Okebukola, and Jegede (1992), a professionally competent scientific teacher, no matter how highly prepared, will be unable to put his or her ideas into effect if the educational environment lacks the appropriate equipment and tools.

According to Bassey (2002), science is resource intensive, and during an economic downturn, it may be difficult to locate some of the technological devices and equipment needed for proper Economics instruction in schools. A predicament that is exacerbated by the country’s soaring inflation and, at times, the discovery that certain imported advanced materials and equipment are too costly and irrelevant; hence, the necessity to make things domestically.

According to Obioha (2006) and Ogunleye (2002), there are insufficient resources for teaching Science topics in Nigerian secondary schools. They went on to say that the ones that are available are typically in poor shape. As a result, improvisation is required. However, Adebimpe (1997) and Daramola (2008) emphasized that improvisation requires adventure, imagination, curiosity, and patience on the side of the instructor and that such qualities are only attainable via a well-planned improvisation training program.

1.2 Problem Description
The essential goal of teaching is to transfer ideas, skills, and attitudes from the instructor to the student. In Nigeria, for example, experience has proven that speaking words alone are ineffectual and inefficient in delivering desirable learning effects. Every year, when the results of the public test are announced, there is a massive failure in Economics.

This might be attributed to the fact that there are issues in Economics that provide substantial understanding challenges to pupils. These subjects cannot be taught successfully unless appropriate instructional tools are used to make the learning practical. Scholars such as Mutebi and Matora (1994) have previously addressed the impact of instructional materials use on teaching and learning. They claim that we learn and recall 10% of what we hear, 40% of what we debate with others, and up to 80% of what we personally experience or do. However, the issue here is whether the utilisation of instructional materials has any effect on students’ academic achievement. Is the usage of instructional materials beneficial to teaching effectiveness?

Could the usage of instructional materials help pupils learn more? Finding solutions to these and other issues outlines the overall challenge of this research.

1.3 The Study’s Objectives
The following are the study’s objectives:

1.4 Research Issues
To meet the study’s aims, the following research questions were posed to lead the investigation:

1.5 Research Theories
For the investigation, the following null hypotheses were proposed.

1.6 Importance Of The Research
In the teaching and learning process, the use of instructional materials allows the student to touch, smell, or taste items. As a result, the information conveyed to students at various levels of educational instruction should be carefully prepared and correctly matched with relevant instructional resources for clarity and comprehensibility. As a result, the importance of this research to students, instructors, curriculum developers, the educational system, and society, in general, cannot be overstated.

The efficient use of instructional materials would help students to successfully learn and remember what they have learned, enhancing their performance in the topic in issue. This is because, according to Nwadinigwe (2000), learning is a process in which information, skills, habits, facts, ideas, and principles are acquired, kept, and applied, and the only way to do so is via the use of instructional materials.

The research would assist instructors to improve their teaching efficacy and productivity. This is consistent with the argument of Ekwueme and Igwe (2001), who said that only instructors can ensure the effective and appropriate use of instructional resources and hence promote achievement. As a result, a teacher who uses suitable instructional resources to augment his teaching will aid to improve students’ original and creative thinking as well as their ability to be spontaneous and passionate. According to Oremeji (2002), any teacher who takes use of these tools and understands how to utilize them appropriately will discover that they offer an almost immeasurable contribution to education. He goes on to argue that instructional materials are very valuable in terms of imparting knowledge, clarifying difficult and complex ideas, sparking cognition, sharpening observation, developing interest, and fulfilling individual differences.

The research is also important for the educational system and society as a whole. This is because when instructors supplement their lessons with instructional resources and students learn well, the information gained has a beneficial impact on society. Students will be able to grasp how the economy works, analyze the government’s economic policies and activities, and perform economically better in their life and career choices.

1.7 The Study’s Scope
The purpose of this research is to look at the impact of instructional material usage on senior secondary school students’ economic performance in Lagos State. The research is confined to the Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos due to time and funding restrictions. This is because the researcher lives in this local government area and hence has a thorough understanding of the place and its surroundings. Furthermore, the research only included S.S.-2 pupils from senior secondary schools in Lagos State’s Kosofe Local Government Area.

1.8 Study Limitations
The researcher’s sole drawback in carrying out this study was the delay in receiving data from the different respondents. Because of their hectic schedules and the nature of their jobs, most respondents were hesitant to fill out surveys. The researcher found it difficult to obtain replies from the different respondents, which nearly jeopardized the study’s success.

1.8 Terms Definition
The concepts mentioned below were operationally defined in relation to their use in this research.

The change (outcome) brought about in a person (s) or thing by another person (s) or thing; is the method by which an event, action, or person transforms someone or something.

Academic performance is defined as the demonstration of information gained or abilities shown in academic topics; such accomplishments are represented by test results or marks granted by instructors. It is the school appraisal of pupils’ classroom work as measured by marks or grades.

Utilization: The act of putting something to use for a certain purpose.

Instructional Material: The materials used by the instructor to make the lesson more entertaining and comprehensible.

Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations for Chapter 5
This chapter covers the study’s findings in relation to the hypotheses that were developed and tested. The findings are used to form conclusions.

5.1 Executive Summary
The results are discussed in terms of the factors that formed the foundation of the hypotheses investigated in chapter four.

The following are the study’s objectives:

The results of hypothesis one testing show that the usage of instructional resources will have a major impact on Economics teaching in secondary schools. This finding is consistent with Ajelabi’s (2000) observation that instructional materials offer support and legitimacy to whatever the instructor says. This allows the student to corroborate or deny the teacher’s claim. Kay (1981) agrees with the preceding viewpoint, claiming that instructional resources help teachers teach more successfully.

The results of hypothesis two testing show that the usage of instructional resources has a considerably favorable effect on secondary school students’ learning of Economics.

This finding supports Aina’s (1982) claim that using instructional materials for teaching enriches classroom work and contributes directly and indirectly to effective teaching and learning. Ajelabi (2000) agrees with Aina (1982) that instructional materials aid in focusing attention and motivating learners. He goes on to say that by using appropriate instructional materials to introduce, develop, or conclude a teaching-learning session, learners’ interest is aroused and developed throughout the lesson.

The results of hypothesis three testing indicate that there will be a significant positive difference in the performance of secondary school students in Economics when the subject is taught with instructional materials. The use of instructional resources in Economics teaching and learning clearly increases student performance. Onyejemezi (1984) believes that when instructional materials are used to make teaching and learning more permanent, positive performance results.

Maduekwe (2000) agrees with Onyejemezi (1984) that the usage of educational materials discourages students from not learning. Oremeji (2002) goes on to say that instructional information products are very valuable for conveying knowledge, clarifying difficult and complex ideas, arousing thoughts, sharpening observation, increasing curiosity, and gratifying individual differences. Overall, the use of instructional materials cannot be overstated since it is an essential component of classroom education.

5.2 Final Thoughts
The following conclusions are formed as a consequence of evidence acquired via data analysis, interpretation of results, and discussion of research findings.

The use of proper instructional materials assists instructors in making their lessons clearer.