INFLUENCE OF IN SERVICE TRAINING ON TEACHER’S PRODUCTIVITY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MUSHIN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, LAGOS

ABSTRACT

Teachers perform major, vital, and valued functions in the educational system since they are at the core of all educational operations. This implies that training is vital to develop their present skill, knowledge, and ability in order to evaluate the trends in technology to directly affect productivity, efficiency, and accuracy.

The major purpose of this research study is to explore and investigate the impact of in-service training on teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area, Lagos.

The study specifically identified the types of in-service training programs available to secondary teachers, assessed the influence of personnel training on teachers’ productivity, and examined if teaching experience will have to moderate influence on teachers’ productivity in Mushin Local Government, Lagos.

A descriptive survey research approach was utilized to describe the key information and understanding of the connection and linkages that exist between the dependent variable and the independent factors. A total number of 110 instructors formed the topic of research while the simple random sample approach was utilized to choose the 110 respondents.

A hypothesis was formed and evaluated using multiple regression analysis at the 0.05 level of significance. However, research shows that there would be a substantial impact of personnel training on teachers’ productivity in Mushin local government region of Lagos state (βeta = .811, t = 14.406, p < .05).

Also that years of teaching experience would not have any significant effect on teacher’s productivity in Mushin local government region of Lagos state (F (4,105) = .632, p> .05). Conclusively, the research proposed that Government, school administrators, school owners, and other education stakeholders should support and arrange diverse and regular in-service training for the instructors in secondary schools. Also, the Government should establish regulations that would enable continual and regular training of teachers.

 

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1

Background of the research Quality education is the degree to which education is claimed to be of high level, meets fundamental learning requirements, and enhances the lives of learners and their whole experience of life (Kennedy, 2016). (Kennedy, 2016). The success of excellent education falls squally on the shoulders of teachers who require sufficient motivation and training to deliver the needed educational production. Given the fact that education is one of the major components that contribute to bringing about quick social and economic growth in any given country, the significance of administrators and teachers cannot be understated.

However, concerted efforts are constantly made via effective and efficient training and motivating tactics by school administrators to guarantee teachers’ productivity in the school system.

Motivational methods have always been viewed as the internalized desire that is more prominent in a person at a particular time which is an important and necessary aspect of the secondary school administration (Kennedy, 2016). (Kennedy, 2016).

To this end, no significant progress could be accomplished in the school system without the necessary techniques to stir up the dedication of teachers on part of the school principal and respect for their productivity. Motivation is to motivate individuals to work, individually or in groups in the methods so as to generate optimal outcomes. It is the will to act.

It is the desire to apply high amounts of effort towards organizational objectives, conditioned by the efforts and abilities to meet some individual demand (Kennedy, 2016). (Kennedy, 2016).

Motivation is getting someone to do something because they want to do it. It was originally considered that motivation had to be supplied from outside, but it is now acknowledged that everyone is driven by numerous diverse tactics as is also valid in the educational system.

Personnel training, often known as employee training, includes teaching staff about operational processes and standards. It assists in assuring the degree of professional and technical competence of workers within the present and foreseeable needs of the company’s business; it also boosts employees’ productivity and knowledge about a job.

Even when the employee satisfies the need of the work, it’s vital to boost the skill level to increase the flexibility and adaptability of the employees over a period of time. As tasks get more sophisticated over the years the need for staff training rises.

The rapid changes taking place in the business environment have created increased pressures for organizations to readapt the products and services produced, the manner in which products and services are produced and offered, the types of jobs required, and the types of skills necessary to complete these jobs. As an employer when you want the best from your workers or employees you also have to deliver the best for them, a classic adage goes thus rubbish in garbage out.

The problem of examination malpractice, failure, short attention span in the classroom, lack of interest of students in school activities, lateness, and other types of misbehavior by students are a big worry in Nigeria and the globe at large. most often, this conduct by the students is blamed on them,  the typical tag given to kids in this group is lazy, we forget that the instructor has a vital fundamental role to play for each and every student to participate and enjoy their learning experience in school.

Once the function of the instructor is not fulfilled properly and efficiently in the short and long term, negative conduct or outcomes will be visible. No wonder the Bible states in psalm 11:3 “if the foundation is destroyed, what can the righteous do? Though the success of the student or educational institution is reliant on many other aspects that play a vital part still, having excellent and productive instructors to develop, build and nurture the abilities, knowledge and general performance of students is one of these key factors.

Teachers have essential, vital, and valued functions in the educational system. The teacher is at the core of all educational operations (Giami, Christian, Oluwuo & Anyamele, 2018). (Giami, Christian, Oluwuo & Anyamele, 2018). The teacher assists in the understanding, and execution of the curriculum to the advantage of the student, school, and country at large.

In other to meet the demands of the curriculum, policies, school goals, and education objectives,   teachers have to play multiple roles, which may include student discipline, classroom management, guidance and counseling, forming of lesson notes, grading of students, the record of students’ progress, update parents on the progress of their children, supervising and organizing school functions, extra and intra-curricular activities and so on.

Due to the multiple tasks of teachers, everyone employed to take up the role has to be morally sound, emotionally intelligent, content smart, qualified and have passion for the profession therefore teachers have to be constantly equipped to meet up to the standard expected from them by the students, parents, school, and nation, in an evolving world, where things are bound to change, these teachers also have to evolve in their methodology and manner of approach to various situations in and outside the classroom, the key way to ensure that these teachers are evolving is by constantly and periodically training them.

Productivity is the length to which an organizational member contributes to attaining the goals of the organization. Employee productivity is the efficacy and efficiency of a worker performing a task according to the authorized job description.

It follows then that the workers in an organization should be able to accomplish their jobs and make significant contributions to the achievement of the organizational objectives (Olaniyan &Lucas, 2008), in other words, instructors’ productivity is dependent on their output.

A teacher’s productivity is sometimes measured by the academic performance of students; this is not accurate because it does not cover all the duties done by the teacher or all the roles played in and out of the classroom walls, therefore teachers productivity can be measured by their overall performance according to the job description.

Productivity is the objective of today’s competitive corporate environment and training may be a springboard to boost productivity.

The two key enhancers of productivity among employees are personnel training and motivation, in this research attention will be focused largely on people training. Training is like strengthening an existing skill, knowledge, and ability in order to consider the trends in technology and other social–cultural environmental changes of a body, the above sentence sets out the fundamental necessity of training.

Training immediately influences productivity, efficiency, and accuracy. For the level of productivity of an organization to expand it depends on the competence of the workforce, this is very well relevant to the educational system as it helps to enhance classroom instructions, and activity and grow individuals professionally. Considering the vital function of teachers in the development of a whole kid, training programs are largely separated into pre-service training and in-service training.

A man or woman cannot be awarded the job of certified teacher before he or she has gone through the essential training needed by the governing body, this training is commonly termed preservice training. Pre-service teacher training programs are recognized and structured, private and public educational programs meant to prepare potential teachers to officially join the profession at a certain level of education.

Graduates acquire a government-approved teaching certificate (UNESCO Institute of Statistics 2019). (UNESCO Institute of Statistics 2019).

This training serves to create various sorts of instructors and it helps to establish self-confidence, norms, values, and work ethics in them. Some of the disempowering actions demonstrated by pupils in recent times may be prevented if trained instructors are hired.

Some institutions employ individuals that do not have any form of training to be teachers, these individuals may not know how to form a lesson note, handle individual differences of students, set standard examination questions, explain curriculum content, etc. and most of these institutions do this because of selfish reasons and also the inadequate supply of qualified teachers in the labor market.

Due to this, pupils are not afforded the optimum learning experience. It is one thing to be a teacher who has gone through pre-service training and it is another to go through in-service training. In-service training is training that is parallel to formal teaching obligations to enhance teachers’ credentials and abilities.

In-service training may strengthen the professionalism of instructors who can contribute to the company accomplishing its objectives. In-service training is a professional and personal educational activity for teachers to increase their efficiency, competence, knowledge, and motivation in their professional job (Che, 2014). (Che, 2014). The fundamental goal of in-service training is to allow instructors to learn new knowledge and teaching abilities (Che, 2014). (Che, 2014). It focuses on building learning environments that help instructors to increase their efficacy in the classroom.

In-service training also gives instructors enough possibilities to acquire new ideas, methodologies, and approaches via professional development. In-service training is the deliberate and continuous process involving the identification and discussion of present and anticipated needs of individual staff for furthering their job satisfaction and career prospects and of the institution for supporting its academic work and plans, and the implementation of programs of staff activities designed for the harmonious satisfaction of these needs (Eduwen, 2016). (Eduwen, 2016). For the instructor’s productivity to remain stable, they have to undertake in-service training in other to catch up with the changing world and in the long run generate pupils that are current and successful in the job market. 1.2

Statement of issue: The dominant concept of the problem is the level and pace of teachers’ productivity in schools. The reports and feedback from teachers’ evaluations, spot tests and school inspection reports have demonstrated the growing and frequent rate of poor productivity of teachers.

It has also been noted that a lack of professionalism has seeped into the fabric of the educational workforce throughout elementary, secondary, and postsecondary schools, which has been attributed to so many underlying reasons.

The dysfunctional character of teachers’ orientation, employment, and posting has further produced a fracture in the wall of teacher quality. This has further led to low academic performance, unsatisfactory learning experience, absenteeism, lateness to school, and social vices.

The long-term effect will include low quality of graduates produced, rise in indiscipline, increase in crime rate, damage to government and private property, non-attainment of the aims and objectives of the education system, and so on.

It is on this premise the researcher seeks to explore the impact of personnel training on teachers’ productivity in Secondary Schools in Mushin Local Government Area, Lagos State. 1.3

Objectives of the research: The major purpose of this research would be to explore the impact of personnel training on teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area, Lagos. This research will especially attempt to: Identify what sorts of in-service training programs are offered to secondary teachers. Assess the impact of personnel training on teachers’ output. Examine whether teaching experience would have a moderating impact on teachers’ output in Mushin Local Government, Lagos. 1.4

Research Questions

What sorts of in-service training are offered to secondary teachers?

Will in-service training affect instructors’ productivity?

Will teaching experience have any moderating effect on teachers’ productivity? 1.5

Research hypothesis The following hypothesis will be evaluated throughout the study: H01:

There will be no substantial impact of in-service training on teachers’ productivity. H01:

Years of teaching experience will not have any substantial moderating impact on teachers’ output. 1.6

Significance of research This study will give information to Nigerian government, school owners, administrators, instructors, and other stakeholders on the influence of people training on productivity.

It would enable the government of Lagos State as well as other governments to guarantee the employment of the correct sort of persons for training, eliminate the use of quack consultants, ensure training need assessment and ensure effective usage of trained employees.

Similarly, it will provide information to teachers on the contribution of training to work productivity and as a result, encourage them to clamor for regular training as well as take training seriously within and outside the school; it will also prove to teachers that the length of service determines the level of productivity.

Also, Organizations would be compelled to dedicate more resources to the training of their teachers, hire highly experienced trainers and guarantee effective usage of trained instructors having recognized the importance of training in boosting teacher productivity. Training agencies and consultants will identify the cogent as well as the necessity of training and as such will dedicate optimal resources in terms of people and materials to the training of staff in order to make training results effective and efficient. 1.7

Scope of the study: This research focuses on the effect of personnel training on teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area Lagos. This research will cover five secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area. 1.8

Operational definition of words Personnel training: a program planned to reach such aims as the orientation of new employees, development of understanding and talents, or change of supervisor or employee outlooks for current and future duty.

Teacher’s productivity: The contribution teachers make to the learning gains of students across multiple content areas over time, i.e., across all courses taught at the upper grades over several terms or school years, or across all subjects taught at the lower grades over several school years.

Teaching experience: typically implies real classroom experience. Pre-service training: Pre-service education of teachers means, education of teachers before they enter into service as teacher. In service training: In-service education can simply be defined as the relevant courses and activities in which a serving teacher may participate to upgrade his professional knowledge, skills, and competence in the teaching profession.

Teachers play significant, critical, and valued roles in the educational system as they are at the center of all educational enterprises. This implies that training is vital to develop their present skill, knowledge, and ability in order to evaluate the trends in technology to directly affect productivity, efficiency, and accuracy.

The major purpose of this research study is to explore and investigate the impact of in-service training on teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area, Lagos. The study specifically identified the types of in-service training programs available to secondary teachers, assessed the influence of personnel training on teachers’ productivity, and examined if teaching experience will have to moderate influence on teachers’ productivity in Mushin Local Government, Lagos.

A descriptive survey research approach was utilized to describe the key information and understanding of the connection and linkages that exist between the dependent variable and the independent factors. A total number of 110 instructors formed the topic of research while the simple random sample approach was utilized to choose the 110 respondents. A hypothesis was formed and evaluated using multiple regression analysis at the 0.05 level of significance.

However, research shows that there would be a substantial impact of personnel training on teachers’ productivity in Mushin local government region of Lagos state (βeta = .811, t = 14.406, p < .05). Also that years of teaching experience would not have any significant effect on teachers productivity in Mushin local government region of Lagos state (F (4,105) = .632, p> .05).

Conclusively, the research proposed that Government, school administrators, school owners, and other education stakeholders should support and arrange diverse and regular in-service training for the instructors in secondary schools. Also, the Government should establish regulations that would enable continual and regular training of teachers.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       Background of the study

Quality education is the degree to which education is said to be of a high standard, satisfies basic learning needs, and enriches the lives of learners and their overall experience of living (Kennedy, 2016). (Kennedy, 2016).

The success of excellent education falls squally on the shoulders of teachers who require sufficient motivation and training to deliver the needed educational production. Given the fact that education is one of the major components that contribute to bringing about quick social and economic growth in any given country, the significance of administrators and teachers cannot be understated. However, concerted efforts are constantly made via effective and efficient training and motivating tactics by school administrators to guarantee teachers’ productivity in the school system.

Motivational methods have always been viewed as the internalized desire that is more prominent in a person at a particular time which is an important and necessary aspect of the secondary school administration (Kennedy, 2016). (Kennedy, 2016). To this end, no significant progress could be accomplished in the school system without the necessary techniques to stir up the dedication of teachers on part of the school principal and respect for their productivity.

Motivation is to motivate individuals to work, individually or in groups in the methods so as to generate optimal outcomes. It is the will to act. It is the desire to apply high amounts of effort towards organizational objectives, conditioned by the efforts and abilities to meet some individual demand (Kennedy, 2016). (Kennedy, 2016).

Motivation is getting someone to do something because they want to do it. It was originally considered that motivation had to be supplied from outside, but it is now acknowledged that everyone is driven by numerous diverse tactics as is also valid in the educational system.

Personnel training, often known as employee training, includes teaching staff about operational processes and standards. It assists in assuring the degree of professional and technical competence of workers within the present and foreseeable needs of the company’s business; it also boosts employees’ productivity and knowledge about a job. Even when the employee satisfies the need of the work, it’s vital to boost the skill level to increase the flexibility and adaptability of the employees over a period of time.

As tasks get more sophisticated over the years the need for staff training rises. The rapid changes taking place in the business environment have created increased pressures for organizations to readapt the products and services produced, the manner in which products and services are produced and offered, the types of jobs required, and the types of skills necessary to complete these jobs. As an employer when you want the best from your workers or employees you also have to deliver the best for them, a classic adage goes thus rubbish in garbage out.

.The problem of examination malpractice, failure, short attention span in the classroom, lack of interest of students in school activities, lateness, and other types of misbehavior by students is a big worry in Nigeria and the globe at large. most often, this conduct by the students is blamed on them,  the typical tag given to kids in this group is lazy, we forget that the instructor has a vital fundamental role to play for each and every student to participate and enjoy their learning experience in school.

Once the function of the instructor is not fulfilled properly and efficiently in the short and long term, negative conduct or outcomes will be visible.

No wonder the Bible states in psalm 11:3 “if the foundation is destroyed, what can the righteous do? Though the success of the student or educational institution is reliant on many other aspects that play a vital part still, having excellent and productive instructors to develop, build and nurture the abilities, knowledge and general performance of students is one of these key factors.

Teachers have essential, vital, and valued functions in the educational system. The teacher is at the core of all educational operations (Giami, Christian, Oluwuo & Anyamele, 2018). (Giami, Christian, Oluwuo & Anyamele, 2018). The teacher assists in the understanding, and execution of the curriculum to the advantage of the student, school, and country at large. In other to meet the demands of the curriculum, policies, school goals, and education objectives, teachers have to play multiple roles, which may include student discipline, classroom management, guidance, and counseling, forming of lesson notes, grading of students, a record of students’ progress, update parents on the progress of their children, supervising and organizing school functions, extra and intra-curricular activities and so on.

Due to the multiple tasks of teachers, everyone employed to take up the role has to be morally sound, emotionally intelligent, content smart, qualified and have passion for the profession therefore teachers have to be constantly equipped to meet up to the standard expected from them by the students, parents, school, and nation, in an evolving world, where things are bound to change, these teachers also have to evolve in their methodology and manner of approach to various situations in and outside the classroom, the key way to ensure that these teachers are evolving is by constantly and periodically training them.

Productivity is the length to which an organizational member contributes to attaining the goals of the organization. Employee productivity is the efficacy and efficiency of a worker performing a task according to the authorized job description.

It follows then that the workers in an organization should be able to accomplish their jobs and make significant contributions to the achievement of the organizational objectives (Olaniyan &Lucas, 2008), in other words, instructors’ productivity is dependent on their output.

A teacher’s productivity is sometimes measured by the academic performance of students; this is not accurate because it does not cover all the duties done by the teacher or all the roles played in and out of the classroom walls, therefore teachers productivity can be measured by their overall performance according to the job description. Productivity is the objective of today’s competitive corporate environment and training may be a springboard to boost productivity. The two key enhancers of productivity among employees are personnel training and motivation, in this research attention will be focused largely on people training.

Training is like strengthening an existing skill, knowledge, and ability in order to consider the trends in technology and other social–cultural environmental changes of a body, the above sentence sets out the fundamental necessity of training. Training immediately influences productivity, efficiency, and accuracy. For the level of productivity of an organization to expand it depends on the competence of the workforce, this is very well relevant to the educational system as it helps to enhance classroom instructions, and activity and grow individuals professionally. Considering the vital function of teachers in the development of a whole kid, training programs are largely separated into pre-service training and in-service training.

A man or woman cannot be awarded the job of certified teacher before he or she has gone through the essential training needed by the governing body, this training is commonly termed preservice training. Pre-service teacher training programs are recognized and structured, private and public educational programs meant to prepare potential teachers to officially join the profession at a certain level of education. Graduates acquire a government-approved teaching certificate (UNESCO Institute of Statistics 2019). (UNESCO Institute of Statistics 2019).

This training serves to create various sorts of instructors and it helps to establish self-confidence, norms, values, and work ethics in them. Some of the disempowering actions demonstrated by pupils in recent times may be prevented if trained instructors are hired.

Some institutions employ individuals that do not have any form of training to be teachers, these individuals may not know how to form a lesson note, handle individual differences of students, set standard examination questions, explain curriculum content, etc. and most of these institutions do this because of selfish reasons and also inadequate supply of qualified teachers in the labor market. Due to this, pupils are not afforded the optimum learning experience.

It is one thing to be a teacher who has gone through pre-service training and it is another to go through in-service training. In-service training is training that is parallel to formal teaching obligations to enhance teachers’ credentials and abilities.

In-service training may strengthen the professionalism of instructors who can contribute to the company accomplishing its objectives. In-service training is a professional and personal educational activity for teachers to increase their efficiency, competence, knowledge, and motivation in their professional job (Che, 2014). (Che, 2014). The fundamental goal of in-service training is to allow instructors to learn new knowledge and teaching abilities (Che, 2014). (Che, 2014). It focuses on building learning environments that help instructors to increase their efficacy in the classroom.

In-service training also gives instructors enough possibilities to acquire new ideas, methodologies, and approaches via professional development. In-service training is the deliberate and continuous process involving the identification and discussion of present and anticipated needs of individual staff for furthering their job satisfaction and career prospects and of the institution for supporting its academic work and plans, and the implementation of programs of staff activities designed for the harmonious satisfaction of these needs (Eduwen, 2016). (Eduwen, 2016). For the instructor’s productivity to remain stable they have to undertake in-service training in other to catch up with the changing world and in the long run generate pupils that are current and successful in the job market.

1.2       Statement of the problem

The prevailing understanding of the problem is the level and rate of teachers’ productivity in schools. The reports and feedback from teachers’ evaluations, spot test,s and school inspection reports have demonstrated the growing and frequent rate of poor productivity of teachers.

It has also been noted that a lack of professionalism has seeped into the fabric of the educational workforce throughout elementary, secondary, and postsecondary schools, which has been attributed to so many underlying reasons. The dysfunctional character of teachers’ orientation, employment, and posting has further produced a fracture in the wall of teacher quality. This has further led to low academic performance, unsatisfactory learning experience, absenteeism, lateness to school, and social vices. The long-term effect will include low quality of graduates produced, rise in indiscipline, increase in crime rate, damage to government and private property, non-attainment of the aims and objectives of the education system, and so on. It is on this premise the researcher seeks to explore the impact of personnel training on teachers’ productivity in Secondary Schools in Mushin Local Government Area, Lagos State.

1.3       Objectives of the research.

The major purpose of this research would be to explore the impact of personnel training on teacher’s productivity in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area, Lagos. This study will specifically seek to:

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Research hypothesis

The following hypotheses will be evaluated throughout the study:

H01:      There will be no substantial impact of in-service training on teachers’ output.

H01:      Years of teaching experience will not have any substantial moderating impact on teachers’ output.

1.6       Significance of research

This research will give information to Nigerian government, school owners, administrators, instructors, and other stakeholders on the influence of people training on productivity. It would enable the government of Lagos State as well as other governments to guarantee the employment of the correct sort of persons for training, eliminate the use of quack consultants, ensure training need assessment and ensure effective usage of trained employees.

Similarly, it will provide information to teachers on the contribution of training to work productivity and as a result, encourage them to clamor for regular training as well as take training seriously within and outside the school; it will also prove to teachers that the length of service determines the level of productivity. Also, Organizations would be compelled to dedicate more resources to the training of their teachers, hire highly experienced trainers and guarantee effective usage of trained instructors having recognized the importance of training in boosting teacher productivity. Training agencies and consultants will identify the cogent as well as the necessity of training and as such will dedicate optimal resources in terms of people and materials to the training of staff in order to make training results effective and efficient.

1.7       Scope of the study

This research focused on the influence of personnel training on teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area Lagos. This research will cover five secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area.

1.8       Operational definition of terms

Personnel training: a program planned to reach such aims as the orientation of new personnel, development of understanding and talents, or adjustment of supervisor or employee outlooks for current and future duty.

Teacher’s productivity: The contribution instructors make to the learning and gains of students across many topic areas over time, i.e., across all courses taught at the higher grades over several terms or school years, or across all subjects taught at the lower grades over several school years.

Teaching experience: typically implies real classroom experience.

Pre-service training: Pre-service education of teachers implies, the education of teachers before they come into service as teachers.

In-service training: In-service education may simply be described as the appropriate courses and activities in which a serving teacher may engage to update his professional knowledge, abilities, and competence in the teaching profession.