TEACHER-STUDENT RELATIONSHIP AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE UYO METROPOLIS

INTRODUCTION TO CHAPTER ONE 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 

In many countries across the globe, the pride of educational institutions is based on both the quantity and, more importantly, the type of output at all levels.

 

Nonetheless, policymakers in certain industrializing countries are to prioritize educational performance quality as an urgent requirement. Specifically, consideration is being given to the notion that the arrangement of high-quality students and instructors should be prioritized, and that the success of any educational system ultimately depends on the quality of the teacher (Dave, 2008). The great majority of governments throughout the globe spend a significant portion of their budget on educational resources.

 

They make resource allocation choices in order to increase student academic achievement. Furthermore, not all of these judgments are easy to make, especially in third-world countries where mismanagement exacerbates the problem. According to Kemerer (2009), assets are few, especially in low-income countries; policymakers cannot control mistakes in allocation decisions.

 

The authentic image of the factors of educational achievement is appealing for reducing the degree of error. In the schooling cycle, resource inputs are critical. Student achievement is a joint effort of present and previous resource inputs, such as family, companions’ effect, and institutional resource inputs. Nonetheless, each of these elements is outside an educator’s direct control.

 

As a result, an educationist oversees and controls the school resource asset inputs directly. Most third-world countries’ education systems are underfunded, leaving little room for acceptable class sizes, enough student classroom space, and appropriate class utilization rates.

 

Despite the fact that these factors influence the efficiency and effectiveness of instructors’ and students’ academic achievement, governments do not express adequate concern about the countries’ declining educational standards (Flanders, 2007).

 

Many factors influence educational quality. Teacher educational quality, pupil intellectual quotient, pupil health condition, quality teaching in the school, school location, social and environmental factors, curriculum, the type of instruction i.e. teacher-centered (e.g. pupils listen, answer questions, practice, etc.) or pupil-centered (e.g. problem-solving, creative projects, etc.), as well as student-teacher ratio, are all factors to consider (Withal, 2009). In any formal educational context, there is a student-teacher connection. The interaction model determines the teacher’s terminology.

 

According to Davis (2002), a teacher is a tutor if he provides individual sessions to one or a small number of students and is paid directly by them. If he instructs the learners on how to proceed with the learning process, he is referred to as a director (rector).

 

He is referred to as a monitor if he watches how the student learns, and a supervisor if he supervises the student’s learning activities. The subject’s nature also plays a role in influencing the influence of the teacher-student ratio. The ratio will vary depending on whether the topic is mostly theoretical, primarily practical, or both. Over the years, the persistent issue of classroom overcrowding, poverty, and poor classroom utilization rates in Nigeria have exacerbated the educational condition. Because education in the nation is underfunded, most public schools have classroom overcrowding, a low student-to-classroom ratio, and low classroom utilization rates; these conditions are likely to have a negative impact on student’s academic achievement.

 

The enormous number of pupils moving through Nigeria’s system is a severe issue, especially given the state government’s failure to supply appropriate provided equipment. For example, it was reported that 1,644,110 applicants took the 2013 Joint Admission and Matriculation Board Examination, with just 10 scorings of 300 or above and 127,017 scorings of less than 159. (JAMB, 2013).

 

This implies that the education situation in Nigeria is frightening, necessitating the immediate attention of all educational system stakeholders to avoid inconsistency. The National Policy on Education established a class size restriction of 30 pupils, yet in many schools around the country, the average class size exceeds 50. The circumstance has a detrimental impact on the typical classroom area allotted to each student. However, these pupils must study in a comfortable environment.

 

The study classroom usage rate is unendingly high in a huge section of the nation’s government-funded schools; this is because the majority of the schools have exceeded the number of pupils they can accommodate. The few schools that have adequate school workers sometimes have poor classroom usage rates, maybe due to powerless administration.

 

This setting is not conducive to academic learning (Dave, 2008). The accomplishment of students in any teaching and learning scenario is crucial. Unfortunately, students’ performance in secondary schools in Nigeria has not been very encouraging, as shown by moderators’ and Chief Examiners’ reports, as well as WAEC and NECO scores during the last decade. Academic accomplishment is a major goal and litmus test for every educational system. According to Cuban (2004), class size and student-teacher ratio have a significant impact on the character of education and students’ academic success.

 

It is undeniable that the student-teacher ratio and per-student outgoings are key resource inputs for every academic institution. The lower the student-teacher ratio in the class, the more likely it is that the quality of education will improve and institutions’ academic goals will be met.

 

The quality of education is critical for important planning of academic goals and objectives, as well as keeping up with the speed of the modern world. In any event, the question is whether the student-teacher ratio has any influence on educational quality.

 

In light of the given premises, the purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of the student-teacher ratio on academic performance in secondary school pupils in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. 1.2 Formulation of the Problem As the school population grows, so do class sizes, and student performance becomes a problem. Class size has become an issue that is regularly mentioned in educational literature as having an influence on students’ attitudes and performance, as well as on organization, quality, and school finances. Class size is just an administrative decision over which instructors have little influence.

 

Most studies begin with the notion that class size is a key driver of students’ levels of accomplishment. Except for a few research, multiple investigations have revealed that, in general, class size has all the earmarks of being a major determinant. The main question that requires rapid clarification is how many pupils comprise a big group and how many constitute a small group.

 

In depicting a tiny group, the researcher observed that they have few teachers with small pools of ability; provide a restricted range of courses; and, notably, believe that it is difficult to justify significant investments in libraries… Their students need rivalry and competitiveness with a few classmates since they are assigned to the same instructor for the whole of their school careers. Large class sizes, on the other hand, are often indifferent, having more curriculum with teachers receiving more comprehensive assistance, yet kids may have disciplinary concerns since instructors cannot easily get better familiar with their pupils.

 

They believe that it is easier to sort kids based on ability, while commitment to work may be tested over time. In terms of numerical strength, the National Policy on Education (1977) prescribed 20 in pre-primary, 30 in primary, and 40 in secondary schools. Because of the high population density in urban areas, these rules seem absurd.

 

Given the significance of the topic, this research explores the influence of student-teacher ratio on students’ academic performance with a focus on Secondary School pupils in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. 1.3

 

Objectives of Research The primary goal of this research is to investigate the influence of the student-teacher ratio on students’ academic performance, with a focus on Secondary School pupils in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

 

However, the precise goals are as follows: I analyze student enrollment and instructor numbers in order to calculate student-teacher ratios and class sizes. ii) Determine the present teacher-student ratio in Uyo metropolitan public secondary school pupils. iii) To examine the influence of student-teacher ratio on secondary school student performance in Uyo metropolitan Secondary School students iv) Outline some guiding concepts for optimum learning outcomes among Akwa Ibom State public secondary school pupils in Uyo. 1.4 Research Suggestions The following research questions must be answered: What are the student enrollment and teacher count for determining student-teacher ratios and class sizes? ii) What is the present teacher-student ratio in Uyo metropolitan public secondary school students? Is there any influence of the student-teacher ratio on secondary school pupils’ performance in Uyo metropolis? iv) What are some guiding principles for optimum learning outcomes among Akwa Ibom State public secondary school pupils in Uyo? 1.5

 

Hypothesis of Research The researcher developed the following research assumptions to ensure the study’s success: There are no significant variations between crowded classrooms and students’ poor academic performance. ii) A strong link exists between the existing teacher-student ratio and the needed or mandated teacher-student ratio. iii) There are no statistically significant variations between the teacher-student ratio and student academic achievement. 1.6

 

Importance of the Research the primary goal of this research is to investigate the influence of the student-teacher ratio on academic performance among secondary school pupils in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. It will be very beneficial to teachers, students, the government, and all other educational stakeholders. Understanding the influence of the identified factors on students’ academic success was believed to lead to a fuller understanding of how such variables may be examined to enhance academic accomplishment in schools.

 

The study’s results, on the other hand, might be valuable to instructors as they seek to provide stimulating learning experiences for pupils. The results would be very valuable to schools as they strive to provide pupils with a better and more solid education.

 

It is hoped that the study’s findings and recommendations would highlight the need for the government to spend more on education. Furthermore, this study would be very beneficial to future researchers interested in student-teacher ratios and academic success. 1.7 Scope of the Research The focus of this research is the influence of student-teacher ratio on students’ academic performance in both junior and senior secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State’s Uyo metropolis. 1.8

 

The Study’s Limitations This study is susceptible to the limitations and obstacles that come with every research project that uses a questionnaire, such as the non-compliance of certain respondents and insufficient information on the topic under inquiry. Finally, financial and time limits were some of the problems that limited the scope of this investigation. 1.9 Definition of Key Terms The student-teacher ratio is: Refers to the number of pupils registered per instructor in a learning institution.

 

It is calculated by dividing the total number of student enrollment by the number of available instructors. Student Academic Performance: This is the demonstration of knowledge and abilities achieved by students as shown by scores or grades obtained at the conclusion of the degree course.

 

Teaching is the act of passing on information or skills to a person or learner about a topic. Learning is a generally permanent change in behavior caused by previous experiences. It might also be defined as the act of gaining information or skills. It is also known as ‘inclination.’ A teacher is one who imparts information to a student in order for them to acquire skills. Schools are establishments that educate children/learners or provide teaching. It may also be regarded as a location where the student receives formal education.

 

1.1 Introduction to the Research

In many countries across the globe, the pride of educational institutions is based on both the quantity and, more importantly, the type of output at all levels. Nonetheless, policymakers in certain industrializing countries are to prioritize educational performance quality as an urgent requirement. Specifically, consideration is being given to the notion that the arrangement of high-quality students and instructors should be prioritized, and that the success of any educational system ultimately depends on the quality of the teacher (Dave, 2008).

 

The great majority of governments throughout the globe spend a significant portion of their budget on educational resources. They make resource allocation choices in order to increase student academic achievement. Furthermore, not all of these judgments are easy to make, especially in third-world countries where mismanagement exacerbates the problem. According to Kemerer (2009), assets are few, especially in low-income countries; policymakers cannot control mistakes in allocation decisions.

 

The authentic image of the factors of educational achievement is appealing for reducing the degree of error. In the schooling cycle, resource inputs are critical. Student achievement is a joint effort of present and previous resource inputs, such as family, companions’ effect, and institutional resource inputs. Nonetheless, each of these elements is outside an educator’s direct control. As a result, an educationist oversees and controls the school resource asset inputs directly.

Most third-world countries’ education systems are underfunded, leaving little room for acceptable class sizes, enough student classroom space, and appropriate class utilization rates. Despite the fact that these factors influence the efficiency and effectiveness of instructors’ and students’ academic achievement, governments do not express adequate concern about the countries’ declining educational standards (Flanders, 2007).

 

Many factors influence educational quality. Teacher educational quality, pupil intellectual quotient, pupil health condition, quality teaching in the school, school location, social and environmental factors, curriculum, the type of instruction i.e. teacher-centered (e.g. pupils listen, answer questions, practice, etc.) or pupil-centered (e.g. problem-solving, creative projects, etc.), as well as students-teacher ratio, are all factors to consider (Withal, 2009). In any formal educational context, there is a student-teacher connection. The interaction model determines the teacher’s terminology.

 

According to Davis (2002), a teacher is a tutor if he provides individual sessions to one or a small number of students and is paid directly by them. If he instructs the learners on how to proceed with the learning process, he is referred to as a director (rector). He is referred to as a monitor if he watches how the student learns, and a supervisor if he supervises the student’s learning activities. The subject’s nature also plays a role in influencing the influence of the teacher-student ratio. The ratio will vary depending on whether the topic is mostly theoretical, primarily practical, or both.

 

Over the years, the persistent issue of classroom overcrowding, poverty, and poor classroom utilization rates in Nigeria have exacerbated the educational condition. Because education in the nation is underfunded, most public schools have classroom overcrowding, a low student-to-classroom ratio, and low classroom utilization rates; these conditions are likely to have a negative impact on students’ academic achievement.

 

The enormous number of pupils moving through Nigeria’s system is a severe issue, especially given the state government’s failure to supply appropriate provided equipment. For example, it was reported that 1,644,110 applicants took the 2013 Joint Admission and Matriculation Board Examination, with just 10 scorings of 300 or above and 127,017 scorings of less than 159. (JAMB, 2013). This implies that the situation of education in Nigeria is frightening, necessitating the immediate attention of all stakeholders in the educational system in order to avoid inconsistency. The National Policy on Education established a class size restriction of 30 pupils, yet in many schools around the country, the average class size exceeds 50.

 

The circumstance has a detrimental impact on the typical classroom area allotted to each student. However, these pupils must study in a comfortable environment. The study classroom usage rate is unendingly high in a huge section of the nation’s government-funded schools; this is because the majority of the schools have exceeded the number of pupils they can accommodate.

 

The few schools that have adequate school workers sometimes have poor classroom usage rates, maybe due to powerless administration. This setting is not conducive to academic learning (Dave, 2008). The accomplishment of students in any teaching and learning scenario is crucial. Unfortunately, students’ performance in secondary schools in Nigeria has not been very encouraging, as shown by moderators’ and Chief Examiners’ reports, as well as WAEC and NECO scores during the last decade.

 

Academic accomplishment is a major goal and litmus test for every educational system. According to Cuban (2004), class size and student-teacher ratio have a significant impact on the character of education and students’ academic success. It is undeniable that the student-teacher ratio and per-student outgoings are key resource inputs for every academic institution.

 

The lower the student-teacher ratio in the class, the more likely it is that the quality of education will improve and institutions’ academic goals will be met. The quality of education is critical for important planning of academic goals and objectives, as well as keeping up with the speed of the modern world. In any event, the question is whether the student-teacher ratio influences educational quality. In light of the given premises, this research aims to investigate the influence of the student-teacher ratio on academic performance in secondary school pupils in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

 

1.2 Formulation of the Problem
As the school population grows, so do class sizes, and student performance becomes a problem. Class size has become an issue that is regularly mentioned in educational literature as having an influence on students’ attitudes and performance, as well as on organization, quality, and school finances. Class size is just an administrative decision over which instructors have little influence.

 

Most studies begin with the notion that class size is a key driver of students’ levels of accomplishment. Except for a few research, multiple investigations have revealed that, in general, class size has all the earmarks of being a major determinant. The main question that requires rapid clarification is how many pupils comprise a big group and how many constitute a small group.

 

In depicting a tiny group, the researcher observed that they have few teachers with small pools of ability; provide a restricted range of courses; and, notably, believe that it is difficult to justify significant investments in libraries… Their students need rivalry and competitiveness with a few classmates since they are assigned to the same instructor for the whole of their school careers.

 

Large class sizes, on the other hand, are often indifferent, having more curriculum with teachers receiving more comprehensive assistance, yet kids may have disciplinary concerns since instructors cannot easily get better familiar with their pupils. They believe it is easier to sort kids based on ability, while commitment to work may be tested over time. In terms of numerical strength, the National Policy on Education (1977) prescribed 20 in pre-primary, 30 in primary, and 40 in secondary schools. Because of the high population density in urban areas, these rules seem absurd. Given the significance of the topic, this research explores the influence of student-teacher ratio on students’ academic performance with a focus on Secondary School pupils in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

 

1.3 Objectives of Research

The primary goal of this research is to investigate the influence of the student-teacher ratio on students’ academic performance, with a focus on Secondary School pupils in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. However, the precise goals are as follows:

I Research student enrollment and teacher numbers in order to calculate student-teacher ratios and class sizes.

ii) Determine the present teacher-student ratio in Uyo metropolitan public secondary school pupils.

iii) To examine the influence of student-teacher ratio on secondary school students’ performance in Uyo metropolitan Secondary School students

iv) Outline some guiding concepts for optimum learning outcomes among Akwa Ibom State public secondary school pupils in Uyo.

1.4 Research Suggestions

The following research questions must be addressed:

I What is the student enrollment and teacher count for determining student-teacher ratios and class sizes?

ii) What is the present teacher-student ratio in Uyo metropolitan public secondary school students?

Is there any influence of the student-teacher ratio on secondary school pupils’ performance in Uyo metropolis?

iv) What are some guiding principles for optimum learning outcomes among Akwa Ibom State public secondary school pupils in Uyo?

1.5 Hypothesis of Research

The researcher developed the following research hypotheses in order to successfully complete the study:

I There are no substantial differences between crowded courses and pupils’ low academic performance.

ii) A strong link exists between the existing teacher-student ratio and the needed or mandated teacher-student ratio.

iii) There are no statistically significant variations between the teacher-student ratio and student academic achievement.

1.6 Importance of the Research

Because the primary goal of this research is to investigate the influence of the student-teacher ratio on academic performance among secondary school pupils in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, it will be very beneficial to teachers, students, the government, and all other educational stakeholders.

Understanding the influence of the identified factors on students’ academic success was believed to lead to a fuller understanding of how such variables may be examined to enhance academic accomplishment in schools. The study’s results, on the other hand, might be valuable to instructors as they seek to provide stimulating learning experiences for pupils.

 

The results would be very valuable to schools as they strive to provide pupils with a better and more solid education. It is hoped that the study’s findings and recommendations would highlight the need for the government to spend more on education. Furthermore, this study would be very beneficial to future researchers interested in student-teacher ratios and academic success.

1.7 Scope of the Research

The focus of this research is the influence of student-teacher ratio on students’ academic performance in both junior and senior secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State’s Uyo metropolis.

1.8 The Study’s Limitations

This study is susceptible to the limitations and obstacles that come with every research project that uses a questionnaire, such as non-compliance of certain respondents and insufficient information on the topic under inquiry. Finally, financial and time limits were some of the problems that limited the scope of this investigation.

 

1.9 Definition of Key Terms
The student-teacher ratio Refers to the number of pupils registered per instructor in a learning institution. It is calculated by dividing the total number of student enrollment by the number of available instructors.

Student Academic Performance: This is the demonstration of knowledge and abilities achieved by students as shown by scores or grades obtained at the conclusion of the degree course.

Teaching is the act of passing on information or skills to a person or learner about a topic.

Learning is a generally permanent change in behavior caused by previous experiences. It might also be defined as the act of gaining information or skills. It is also known as ‘inclination.’

A teacher is one who imparts information to a student in order for them to acquire skills.

Schools are establishments that educate children/learners or provide teaching. It may also be regarded as a location where the student receives formal education.