It is commonly established that teacher competency, sensitivity, and motivation play a major role in determining the quality and degree of student accomplishment.
Teacher education is described as “A program of education, research, and training of professionals to teach from pre-primary to higher education level” by the National Council for Teacher Education.
The development of a teacher’s proficiency and competency is a program connected to teacher education that will equip and empower the teacher to fulfill the demands of the profession and tackle the problems within.
Goods Dictionary of Education claims that All actions and experiences, both formal and informal, that prepare a person to carry out his obligations as a member of the teaching profession or to do so more skillfully are referred to as teacher education.
The curriculum for teacher preparation was known as teacher training from 1906 and 1956. It trained instructors to be technicians or mechanics. It had more restricted objectives and concentrated exclusively on skill development. As a result, the viewpoint and breadth of teacher education were severely constrained. According to Kilpatric, education is offered to people while training is given to circus performers and animals.
Teaching techniques, strong pedagogical theory, and professional skills are all included in teacher education.
Teaching abilities plus pedagogical theory plus professional skills is teacher education.
Training and experience in various methods, approaches, and tactics that aid instructors in lesson planning and delivery, appropriate reinforcement, and efficient evaluation are all examples of teaching skills. It includes communication skills, preparedness for and utilization of lessons, and efficient classroom management.
The philosophical, social, and psychological aspects that make up pedagogical theory provide instructors a solid foundation on which to practice their teaching techniques in the classroom. The idea is stage-specific and is built around the demands and specifications unique to that level.
Professional skills encompass the methods, procedures, and approaches that would aid instructors in developing their careers and advancing the field. It encompasses interpersonal, computer, information retrieval, and managerial abilities as well as soft skills like counseling and lifelong learning.
The correct knowledge, attitude, and abilities would be developed in teachers via a combination of instructional techniques, pedagogical theory, and professional skills, encouraging holistic growth.
GOALS FOR TEACHER EDUCATION:
The future of teacher education must take into account the changing needs of the educational system. For this, it must prepare teachers for a dual role as: an active participant in the group of people who consciously work to contribute to the process of remaking society; and, an encouraging, supportive, and humane facilitator in teaching and learning situations who enables learners (students) to discover their talents, to realize their physical and intellectual potentialities to the fullest; and, to develop character and desirablesocial and human values to function as responsible citizens.
These expectations imply that the teacher functions in a broader environment, whose dynamics and issues have an impact on her performance. To achieve the aims of equity, parity, social justice, and quality, teachers must be receptive to and sensitive to the social settings of education, the many differences in learners’ backgrounds, as well as the macronational and global contexts.
In order for the student teachers to fulfill these objectives, TE must have the following features:
who love to be around children and provide them care;
Recognize the social, cultural, and political conditions in which children are growing up; see learning as a personal quest for meaning;
Know how learning happens, what environments could be conducive to learning, and how pupils vary in terms of learning types, rates, and styles.
Consider the creation of knowledge as a reflective learning process that is always growing.
Be open-minded and never stop learning.
Consider knowledge creation as an ever-evolving process of reflective learning and learning as a quest for meaning based on personal experience.
Consider knowledge as something that is created in the common environment of teaching, learning, and human experience rather than as an external reality entrenched in textbooks.
Own up to your social obligations and make an effort to improve the world.
Recognize the advantages of practical experience and productive work as a teaching tool both inside and outside of the classroom.
Examine the texts, policy ramifications, and curricular framework.
possess a solid knowledge foundation and rudimentary language skills.
Consequently, the goals of teacher education would be to,
Create chances for adults to interact with, watch, and interact with children.
Creating chances for self-learning, reflection, absorption, and articulation of new concepts will help students improve their thinking, self-criticism, and group-working skills as well as their capacity for self-directed learning.
Give people the chance to comprehend themselves and others (including their own ideas, presumptions, and emotions), and to learn how to adjust, be flexible, and think creatively and innovatively.
Give people the chance to deepen their comprehension, examine disciplinary knowledge and social realities, connect their learning to the broader context, and cultivate critical thinking.
Give people the chance to hone their professional pedagogical, observational, documentational, analytical, dramatic, craft, storytelling, and reflective inquiry skills.
ICT in Schools and Online Education
There is an increasing demand for information and communication technology (ICT) to be taught in schools as a result of its introduction and growth. The structure of teacher education is intended to help educators recognize when an ICT tool is being used in a way that is beneficial to students’ development and when it is not. Additionally, it must provide instructors the skills they need to utilize ICT for their own professional growth.
In light of the aforementioned debate, the newly proposed NCERT Teacher Education Program is as follows:
The newly envisioned teacher education program emphasizes learning as a self-learning participatory process taking place in both the learner’s social context and a larger social context ranging from the community to the nation.
fully trusts in the ability of schoolchildren and student teachers to learn on their own and in the development of effective educational programs.
believes that learning is a process in which the learner actively participates. His or her potentials are seen as able to grow via experiences rather than being fixed.
views the teacher as a facilitator who aids and promotes students’ learning.
treats knowledge as something that is being produced via a variety of experiences rather than something that is permanent, stagnant, or contained in books. It is formed by interaction, which includes debate, evaluation, explanation, comparison, and contrast.
In this educational process, it is emphasized that evaluations would be ongoing, formal in nature, done by teacher educators, and include peer and self evaluation.
DIFFICULTIES IN TEACHER EDUCATION
Lack of proper planning for the future is one current issue facing teacher education in Nigeria. By now, we should have sufficient data on the number of schools and instructors required for the next 10 years if we are to accommodate five million children.
There is a pervasive crisis in education and society that is characterized by underachievement, corruption, crime, indiscipline, and underuse of abilities in all facets of human life and national development. This crisis could be attributed to the neglect of general education, teacher education, and the pitiful plight of the teachers.
The issue of supply and demand is another one. We have a blazairo problem on our hands as a result of the ineffective coordination of the work of Nigeria’s numerous Ministries of Education. While there is a severe shortage of qualified instructors in one region of the nation, there is an apparent abundance of qualified teachers in another region that cannot be used. This is especially true of the instructors in Grade 2.
The Phelps-Stocks Commission (1920) had identified additional issues, including (a) the lack of teaching-learning aids in schools; (b) the lack of professionally trained staff; (c) the issue of non-supervision/inspection of schools; (d) the issue of poor incentives for teachers; (e) the issue of inadequate funding for schools; (f) the lack of staff development programs in the majority of schools and colleges; (g) the issue of subpar research facilities; and, most
Due to these various issues or difficulties, Ukeje (1992) advised teacher trainers in Nigeria to take care not to develop idiots in the name of letting people go, as each of these idiots would undoubtedly do.
Despite the overwhelming issues/challenges listed above, teacher education may still be saved from what seems to be its inevitable collapse with effort and perseverance. Lack of skilled instructors to instruct learners may be the cause of the low quality of teachers generated. The improper instruction and the production of subpar instructors might result from bad syllable interpretation and execution as well as a lack of commitment to duty. Both Taiwo (1980) and Joshua (1997) agreed that instructional delivery staff should have a particular minimal degree of expertise in their respective professions to ensure that students are adequately instructed and equipped with marketable abilities after graduating from such programs. Government financing for teacher training institutions must be sufficient in order to provide enough money for the growth of the workforce, a healthy environment, and proper teacher training institution inspection.
VALUE OF EDUCATION FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Education is a tool that provides individuals with the knowledge, ability, technique, and information they need to realize their rights and responsibilities to their families, communities, and country. In no little part, education has contributed to raising the standard of living in all societies.
This is shown by elements of education, such as the eradication of poverty, safety and security from crime, the avoidance of war and terrorism, as well as trade and commerce. Others include upholding law and order, empowering women, communication, and uplifting economically underprivileged groups in society. The fact that education raises living standards and enables people to contribute to the growth of their country or community is one of the most significant advantages of education in a society.
A nation’s numerous locked doors may be opened with the help of education, which is a crucial key. When a country recognizes the importance of education as a driver of development, that country will quickly enjoy astronomical socioeconomic progress.
But for a growing nation like Nigeria, it’s important to understand how education may boost the economy. When illiteracy is eliminated, the populace is educated and does the proper activities that are required of a decent citizen. It is significant that the nation would be in better condition once the residents live appropriately. Additionally, an educated individual who has undergone transformation cannot be caught in the act of robbery, murder, abduction, rape, or other vices, giving the country a peaceful environment where economic growth flourishes.
Today’s school systems must deal with a number of ever-increasing demands, including closing the achievement gap, implementing evidence-based practices, achieving adequate yearly progress goals, managing the needs of students with special needs and second languages, and staying up to date with pedagogical and content area research. The significant developments taking place in education must be kept up with by educators. Professional growth may help with this.
“The process of enhancing staff skills and competences required to generate great educational outcomes for pupils” is the definition of professional development. The study literature consistently shows, according to Thomas G., “that significant improvements in education nearly never occur in the absence of professional development. Meeting the needs of today’s school requires professional growth.
Schools must use top-notch professional development techniques. The days of “sit and receive” seminars and expert-delivered awareness campaigns for teacher staff development sessions are long gone. Professional development approaches that are more efficient and interesting are now being used. The goal of staying current can be achieved with the help of high-quality ongoing professional development that deepens teachers’ subject-matter expertise and pedagogical skills, offers opportunities for practice, research, and reflection, and incorporates sustained, collaborative efforts that are embedded in the classroom.
Professional development is now more and more understood to be a systemic process that affects everyone who is engaged in promoting student accomplishment, from the superintendent to the teaching assistants. Every Child Reading, published by the Learning First Alliance in 2000, asserts that “educating classroom teachers about early reading instruction is largely ineffective unless their administrators, policymakers, specialists, teaching assistants, tutors, and parents operate with similar concepts and practices.
Professional Development Programs for Teachers
Learning to obtain or retain professional credentials, such as academic degrees to formal training, visiting conferences, and taking advantage of informal learning opportunities located in practice, is known as professional development. It is said to have an assessment step and be intense and collaborative. Professional development may be accomplished via a number of methods, such as consulting, coaching, communities of practice, lesson study, mentorship, reflective supervision, and technological support. The drive for teachers to continue learning throughout their careers supports and assures responsibility in the workplace.
abilities required for a new teaching method
Today, the term “all-round student development” encompasses not just intellectual development but also the mastery of a variety of abilities, including cooperation, communication, and critical thinking (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009).
Instructors must adapt to these new demands in order to support the development of 21st-century skills in student-centered learning, with the ISTE standard for teachers serving as one prominent example (International Society for Technology in Education, 2008). It is not simple to prepare instructors for the introduction of a new 21st-century skills-oriented teaching approach.
The majority of 21st-century skill learning objectives are said to be teachable within the framework of scientific inquiry or project-based learning, both of which need for “ambiguous” instruction. The ability to organize learning activities that delegate learning decisions to students and track their progress, to facilitate learning activities like group problem-solving, and to guide students in thinking about complex problems by providing them with feedback after assessment are all required skills for this teaching style.
This section aims to explore areas where teachers need to improve their own skills in order to effectively support the teaching of and aid students in developing 21st-century skills, namely teachers’ attitudes towards and competencies of adopting 21st-century skills, their pedagogical orientation, and their professional identity. This section aims to reduce the “ambiguity” of such a novel teaching model.
EDUCATION’S IMPACT IN PRODUCING SUCCESSFUL ENTREPRENEURS
Entrepreneurs often exhibit creativity, risk-taking, leadership qualities, and a strong drive to succeed in their own firm. However, their skill may not be enough if they don’t have a good education. The most important and effective individuals would always be the most talented, if the skill of the entrepreneurs were sufficient. Because of this, ability alone is insufficient, but it may provide an entrepreneur an edge over others until they are no longer able to exploit it.
In order to radically alter the character, practice, and outcomes of entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial educators and researchers must take a number of steps to establish a professional community that strives to share shared values and objectives. Since this is just the beginning, they must continue to develop their potential as entrepreneurs. especially considering that every entrepreneur has a skill they may develop. Because of this, kids need both formal and informal instruction (such as the support of a life coach to help them realize their potential, mentors, etc.).
In terms of the future of entrepreneurial education, it refers to the programs and courses that the entrepreneur requires at various levels of education and training, as well as their relevance, usefulness, coherence, effectiveness, and efficiency. The largest barrier to an entrepreneur’s success is also a lack of faith in one’s own abilities. Entrepreneurs must thus maximize their potential in order to increase their confidence. Considering that the average person only utilizes 10% of their potential).
Lack of faith in one’s own abilities is another factor in entrepreneur failure. As a result, they need coaches and mentors to help them continue. They require additional education in order to understand who they are. Entrepreneurs can actually learn how to collaborate with their team members through education.
They gain knowledge of how to form teams and coach them to perform at the desired level. Therefore, the presence of organizational conditions that support learning defines an organization that aims to facilitate the education of all of its members and continuously transforms.
In this regard, education and training are required to have a positive attitude, in terms of encouraging people to join a leadership position, for leaders to be able to develop other leaders. According to some, entrepreneurs must take into account three different types of education. In the first type of education, students learn to write, read, and solve problems in an academic setting.
The ability of the entrepreneur to stay current with changes in the information field is therefore crucial, rather than relying solely on what they already know.
Because entrepreneurs need to acquire the skills and strategies of the “real world” by acting practically, academic education is frequently not the best course of action. For entrepreneurs, it is practically impossible to learn something without doing that. The majority of what people say and do, as well as 70% of what they say, 50% of what they hear and see, 30% of what they see, 20% of what they hear, and 10% of what they read, are all things that people pick up on. Therefore, regardless of how knowledgeable a person is on a theoretical level about a particular subject, he must also be able to apply that knowledge and influence others. Otherwise, the information is no longer necessary.
The necessity for vocational education for job security refers to the need for knowledge of a career from which one may make money. Because it pertains to professions like lawyer, doctor, etc., there simply isn’t enough professional education. Which implies that these people do not become entrepreneurs as a result of their vocational education. And last but not least, we are talking about financial education that represents a financial culture by understanding the specific language and figures.
In other words, financial education refers to how much money entrepreneurs can keep and how much money they manage to work for him, and how many generations he manages to make money. In essence, this is the point at which business owners must attain a certain degree of knowledge. But in order to get there, we were taught that business owners must choose their mentors wisely, particularly if they are not wealthy individuals. A particular attitude is also required, accounting for 80% of financial education. If an entrepreneur consistently says things like, “I can’t afford it,” “I don’t care about money,” etc., he will always be in need.
Last but not least, we’re talking about learning the vocabulary of money, including terms like “net operating income,” “maximum rate,” and others that businesspeople need to master in order to become wealthy. Additionally, because experiential learning is necessary, those who want to study this phenomenon and become entrepreneurs cannot learn this skill from a book. Therefore, another type of education is ineffective. Entrepreneurs grow significantly as a result of failure because they learn from their experiences and mistakes. Entrepreneurs can also learn from others’ errors and avoid making the same ones themselves, freeing up time to expand and improve their companies. Consequently, learning from experience is the best method of education.
People who don’t perform well therefore either didn’t learn anything or didn’t do anything worthwhile in life.